Background Information Old Testament New Testament New Testament (cont.) Gentile Period (cont.)
1-Biblical Jerusalem 16-Salem, Jebus 33-Ashlar Stones 51-Bethesda Pool 68-Saint Anne's Church
2-History of Jerusalem 17-Milo, Jebusite Wall 34-Temple Mount 52-Holy Sepulcher 69-Sultan's Pool
3a-Map of Today's City 18-Gihon Springs 35-NE of End of Wall 53-Garden Tomb 70-Citadel
3b-The Four Quarters 19-City of David 36-SE End of Wall 54-Fort Antonia 71-Colonnade Column
3c-Photos 20-David's Palace 37-Western Wall 55-Phasael Tower  
3d-Silwan 21-Temple Mount 38-West Wall Tunnel 56-Struthion Pool  
4-The Walls Today 22-Solomon's Walls 39-Mikvah, Ritual Baths 57-Gethsemane  
5-The Gates Today 23-Solomon's Quarries 40-The Large Mikvah 58-Tombs in Hinnom Miscellaneous
6-Archaeology Periods 24-Broad Wall 41-Wilson's Arch 59-Jerusalem Tombs Archaeological Finds
7-Archaeology History 25-Hezekiah's Tunnel 42-Warren's Gate Gentile Period Jason's Tomb
8-Old Ancient Core 26-Middle Gate 43-Barclay's Gate 60-Ecce Homo Lazarus' Tomb
9-Kidron Valley 27-Nehemiah's Wall 44-Robinson's Arch 61-Roman Inscription Tomb of David
10-Central Valley Hasmonean 45-Western Wall Street 62-Cardo Maximus Via Dolorosa
11-Hinnom Valley 28-Walls and Towers 46-Western Wall Shops 63-Roman Road Hezekiah's Pool
12-Mount of Olives 29-Aqueduct 47-South Temple Wall 64-Nea Church  
13-Mount Moriah 30-Acra 48-Archaeology Park 65-Al Aqsa Mosque  
14-Western Hill Mt Zion 31-Temple Mount 49-Siloam Road 66-Dome of the Rock  
15-Ophel 32-Tombs in Kidron 50-Siloam Pool 67-Temple Mount  
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62- Cardo Maximus

A Cardo Maximus was located in all Roman cities and military camps. It was the main north-south road that ran through the city and served as the center for the local economy. It was also the main branch for all other roads. The main east-west road was thesecondary road and was called Decumanus Maximus. When Hadrian ended the Second Jewish Rebellion (Bar Kochba Revolt) in 135 AD, the Romans rebuilt Jerusalem as Aelia Capitolina, and a Cardo Maximus was added.

Beginning in 1967, major sections of this 1900-year-old street have been excavated, and are reused in today’s Jewish Quarter in the Old City of Jerusalem. The entire roadway was originally 74 feet wide (the road itself was 40 feet wide with colonnaded and covered sidewalks on both sides to protect pedestrians from traffic and the heat of the sun). Shops were located all along both sides of the street. Hadrian began building the Cardo in the north of the city at the Damascus Gate in 135 AD. Later, around 527, the Christian Emperor Justinian completed the road so that the Church of the Holy Sepulcher was connected to the southern part of the city, past the Nea Church and the southern gate.


A map found on the floor of a Byzantine church from around 500 AD shows the Cardo as the main road of Jerusalem. The pillars in the photos below are detailed
on this map from 1500 years ago.

Also notice the so called Eastern Cardo, which is just above the Cardo Maximus on this map. The Eastern Cardo only has onerow of columns.


The Cardo built by the Romans (135-312) and used by the Byzantines. The road is in the middle of the photo and extends to the left past the edge. (Imagine it without the modern square pillars.) To the right are the original columns of the colonnaded street. To the right of the columns is the Roman sidewalk. Notice the square curb. Curb, columns and sidewalk were also on the other side of this street.

The smaller rocks in the wall were placed to block an ancient shop entrance.

Notice the modern city street level is about 20 feet above the street level of 135 AD. See the modern street in the top left, with a stairway coming down to the Cardo.

Ancient arched shop fronts and their vaulted rooms along the sidewalk of the Cardo in ancient Aelia Capitolina, the Roman Jerusalem.

Part of the ancient Cardo that has been modernized. Notice the pavement and the ancient store fronts which are now home to modern shops. Toni is shopping under the Israeli flag on the right side. A very nice art shop that sells prints by local artists (at least one of whom also works in the shop) is on the right. Toni is shopping to the right under the Israel flag.

The street is seen in the lower left corner. The curb rises to make the sidewalk which is lined with columns on the right side of the Cardo Street. The shops are located on the right side of the street. Two of the original arch shops can be seen in the top left of the photo.
 

 

 

 

 

 
 
Shops were located behind the sidewalk. Two of the
arched shop fronts can still be seen (top left quadrant).
Notice again the street pavement (lower left corner),
the square street curb, the columns that still remain
from the colonnade, the pedestrian sidewalk protected
by the columns, the place where the covering would
have been, and the remains of five shops and
their walls.
 
  Ancient arched shop fronts and their vaulted rooms
along the sidewalk of the Cardo in ancient Aelia
Capitolina, the Roman Jerusalem.
  Ancient pavement stones from the Cardo (top back) lay
beside modern reconstructions (front bottom).
   
   
   

JERUSALEM: HISTORY, ARCHAEOLOGY AND
APOLOGETIC PROOF OF SCRIPTURE

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