CHALCOLITHIC PERIOD (4500-3200)-
- 3500 BC - Jerusalem is first settled on the Ophel above the Gihon Spring
BRONZE AGE (3200-1200) -
- 2000 BC - Abraham meets with the Melchizedek, the king of Jerusalem, which is called Salem
- 1800 BC - Jerusalem is mentioned in Egyptian Texts and called Rasalimum
- 1400 BC - Joshua kills Adoni-zedek, the Jebusite king of Jerusalem but does not capture the the city of Jerusalem which is also called Jebus.
- 1400 BC - Jerusalem appears in diplomatic correspondences called the Amarna Letters as Urusalim
IRON AGE (1200-539 BC) -
- 1000 BC - David takes Jerusalem from the Jebusites
- 960 BC - Solomon builds the First Temple
- 712 BC - Hezekiah cuts the tunnel through the bedrock under the City of David from the Gihon Spring to the Pool of Siloam
- 586 BC - Nebuchadnezzar and the Babylonians destroy Jerusalem and the Temple. Jews taken captive to Babylon.
PERSIAN AGE (539-322) -
- 537 BC - Cyrus the Persian allows Jews to return to rebuild Jerusalem.
- 516 BC - Second Temple, or Zerubbabel's Temple, is completed
- 445 BC - Nehemiah rebuilds the walls
HELLENISTIC PERIOD (332-141 BC) -
- 332 BC - Alexander the Great and the Greeks conquers Israel from the Persians and takes Jerusalem peacefully
- 320 BC - Ptolemy I captures Jerusalem and Egyptian rule of Jerusalem begins
- 198 BC - Seleucids in Syria capture Jerusalem and Syrian rule of Jerusalem begins
- 168 BC - Antiochus IV Epiphanes desecrates the Temple in Jerusalem and the Maccabean revolt soon begins
- 164 BC - Judas Maccabeus recaptures Jerusalem
HASMONEAN PERIOD (141-37 BC) -
- 141 BC - Simon Maccabeus (Judas' brother) establishes Judea as an independent state. The Maccabee family, called Hasmoneans, begin to rule as kings in Jerusalem
HERODIAN PERIOD (37 BC - 70 AD) -
- 63 BC - Roman General Pompey captures Jerusalem for Rome
- 40 BC - Herod the Great is appointed king in Jerusalem by Rome
- 18 BC- Herod begins the rebuilding of the Temple
- 10 BC - Temple is dedicated, but construction continues on Temple until 63 AD
- 66 AD - Jewish revolt against Rome begins
ROMAN PERIOD (70-324) -
- 70 AD - Jerusalem falls to Romans and the city and Temple are destroyed and burnt
- 132 AD - Second Jewish revolt against Rome begins - Bar Kochba takes Jerusalem from Rome
- 135 AD - Roman Emperor Hadrian puts down the second Jewish revolt and rebuilds the city calling it Aelia Capitolina. A pagan temple for Jupiter (Zeus) was built on the Temple Mount and Jews were forbidden to enter the city.
BYZANTINE PERIOD (324-638) -
- 326 AD - Constantine's mother, Helena, visits Jerusalem and establishes the Christian holy sites. Many churches are built.
- 335 AD - Church of the Holy Sepulcher is built
- 361 AD -Emperior Julian the Apostate announces to the Jews that they are allowed to return to Jerusalem and begin rebuilding the Temple.
- 438 AD - Jews are allowed to live in Jerusalem
- 614 AD - Persians conquer Jerusalem under General Shahrbaraz. Churches are destroyed, including the Church of the Holy Sepulcher which is burnt. The Jews driven out of Jerusalem
- 629 AD - The Byzantine Empire (Christian) recaptures Jerusalem from the Persians under Emperor Heraclius
FIRST MUSLIM PERIOD (638-1099) -
- 638 AD - The Muslim Caliph Omar, or Umar. (The caliph is the poitical leader of Islam) takes Jerusalem from the Byzantine empire six years after Mohammed's death.
- 661 - Umayyad dynasty begins and continues until 750
- 691 - Dome of the Rock completed by Caliph Abd al-Malilk
- 701 - Al-Aqsa Mosue is completed by Caliph al-Walid
- 750 - Abassid dynasty begins and contineus until 974
- 878 - The Tulunids take the city
- 904 - The Abassids retake the city
- 939 - The Ikhshidid take the city
- 969 - The Fatimids take the city under General Gawhar Al-Siqilli
- 1010 - Synagogues and churches in Jerusalem are destroyed by Caliph al-Hakim
- 1077 - Seljuk Turks conquer Jerusalem
- 1096 - Pope Urban calls for a crusade to take back the Holy Land
CRUSADER PERIOD (1099-1187) -
- 1099 - Godfrey of Bouillon captures Jerusalem for the Christians. Baldwin I is named King of Jerusalem. A great slaughter of Jews and Muslims by the Christians followed the capture of the city.
AYYUBID PERIOD (1187-1250) -
- 1187 - General Saladin takes Jerusalem from the Crusaders. Jews and Muslims return and settle in the city.
- 1192 - Crusaders fail to take Jerusalem but the Muslim General Saladin allows Christians to worship at their Holy Sites
- 1212 - Three hundred rabbis from England and France settle in Jerusalem
- 1219 - Sultan Malilk-al-Muattam razes city walls
- 1229 - Crusaders briefly recapture Jerusalem twice
- 1244 - Crusader era ends when Khawarizmian Turks capture Jerusalem.
MAMLUK PERIOD (1250-1516) -
- 1250 - Muslim caliph dismantles walls of Jerusalem
- 1260 - Mameluks of Egypt capture Jerusalem
- 1347 - Mamelukes capture Jerusalem a second time
OTTOMAN PERIOD (1516-1917)
- 1517 - Ottomans peacefully takeover Jerusalem by Sultan Selim
- 1537 - Sultan Suleiman "the Magnificent" rebuilds the city walls which had been in ruins since 1219.
- 1541 - Jerusalem's Eastern or Golden Gate is sealed to prevent the Jewish Messiah's entrance
- 1542 - Damascus gate built
- 1700 - Rabbi Yehuda He'Hassid arrives in Jerusalem and begins building the "Hurva" Synagogue
- 1705 - Restrictions imposed on the Jews in Jerusalem
- 1831 - Sultan Mehemet Ali of Egypt conquers teh city
- 1838 - First British consulate is opened in Jerusalem.
- 1840 - The Ottoman Turks retake the city
- 1844 - Census shows 7,120 Jews, 5,760 Muslims, 3,390 Christians
- 1860 - First Jewish settlement outside the walls of the city
- 1898 - World Zionist Organization founder, Dr. Theodor Herzl, visits Jerusalem. Dr. Herzl meets German Kaiser Wilhelm outside the city walls
MODERN PERIOD (1917-present) -
- 1917 - British take Jerusalem from the Ottoman Empire and General Allenby enters Jerusalem
- 1947 - United Nations Resolution recommending the partitioni of Israel
- 1948 - British Mandate and control of Jerusalem ends and the State of Israel begins
- 1948 - Israel War of Liberation, Jewish Quarter in Old City falls
- 1949 - Jerusalem is divided in the Israel-TransJordan Armistice Agreement. Jerusalem divided between two countries. Jerusalem is declared capital of Israel
- 1967 - Jerusalem reunited when Old City is captured. Jordan sends shells and mortars to begin the Six Day War which results in Israeli troops capturing the Old City