Lesson 23 of 50 - Church History (part one of eight)
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TAKE THE TESTS -
2004 mp3 Audio
2009 mp3 Audio:
Church History 62-98 AD
Church History 64-117 AD
Church History 117-200 AD
Real Player Video:
Church History 62-98 AD
Church History 64-117 AD
Church History 117-200 AD
Sect F, Ch
Sect F, Ch
Church History 62-98,
Events in the First Century (2011)
Audio .mp3 - Church History 62-98 AD,
Events in the First Century
Church History 64-117,
Early Church Leadership (2011)
Audio .mp3 - Church History 64-117,
Early Church Leadership
Church History 117-200,
Easter Conflict, Gnostics (2011)
Audio .mp3 - Church History 117-200,
Easter Conflict, Gnostics,
Church History - Introduction (2017)
Church History 48-100 AD (2017)
100-150 AD (2017)
Church History 150-200 AD - Gnosticism, Irenaeus, Easter Date (2017)
Church History 150-250 AD (2017)
Church History (part one): Background; Overview; Apostles; Nero and Anti-Christian Logic; Polycarp; Ignatius
Periods of Church History
Predicted from the book of Revelation:
30-98 Ephesus Rv. 2:1-7 Loved but drifted
98-313 Smyrna Rv. 2:8-11 Bitter Affliction, Persecuted
313-590 Pergamos Rv. 2:12-17 Mixed with Paganism
590-1517 Thyatira Rv. 2:18-20 Continual Idolatry
1517-1730 Sardis Rv. 3:1-6 Escaping, Remnant
1730-1900 Philadelphia Rv. 3:7-13 Brotherly Love
1900-Rapture Laodicea Rv. 3:14-22 People Ruled
A Recap of historical periods:
30-98 Book of Acts and Apostles – Christianity spreads to the Roman Empire
98-312 Early Christianity
- Christianity struggles for survival in Empire
312-590 The Christian Empire
- Christianity dominates the Roman Empire
590-1516 Christian Middle Ages
- Latin; Church/State Struggle; Supremacy of Pope
1517-1648 The Reformation
- Individuals Protest against Church/State Dominion
1649-1781 Reason, Revival and Denominations
- Individuals Interpret and Respond to Scripture’s Authority
1789-1912 Missions and Modernism
- World Outreach; Science, Industry, Government Advance
1914-2000 Ideologies and Liberalism
- Men Trust in Human Nature and Human Achievement
Church History Events
49 Council of Jerusalem
- 1st Church Council
- Issue was circumcision and Jewish Law
- Set a pattern for the ecumenical councils: tradition and authoritative
- Leaders recognized that the Spirit came to Jews and Gentiles in the same way:
- Faith in Jesus
- Not observance of the Law
- The Christian movement became a trans-cultural movemen
- Mother, Agippina, poisoned two husbands including Emperior Claudius in 54
- Agrippina had the Praetorian Guard proclaim 16 year old Nero emperor
- In 56 (age 19) he began late night rioting in the streets
- In 59 he killed his mother
- He began to give public performances at the age of 22 (in 59)
- In 62 he killed his wife to marry someone else.
- He began to write poetry, race chariots, play the lyre
- He desired to rebuild Rome into a new, modern city he would call Neropolis
63 James, the brother of the Lord
- James had seen the resurrected Lord
- James was involved in the establishment of the early church in Jerusalem
- James was part of the Jerusalem Council in 48 AD
- James wrote his book called “James” around 45 AD
- James led the Jerusalem church until 63 AD
- In 63 AD, during the reign of the high priest Ananus, James was taken to a high point of the temple by the Sanhedrin and told to announce to the Jewish crowd coming to the Passover not to follow the false teaching concerning Jesus being the Christ. Instead James announced to the crowd that Jesus was the Christ, he sat at God’s right hand and will return in the clouds of heaven. The scribes and Pharisees then pushed James off the temple and proceeded to throw stones at him. As James prayed for the people he was clubbed in the head and died.
63 Simeon, bishop of Jerusalem
- Simeon was the son of Clopas (mentioned in John 19:25 as the husband of Mary). Clopas was the brother of Joseph which means Simeon was Jesus’ cousin.
- After James’ death the living apostles and disciples of Jesus assembled in Jerusalem and chose Simeon to fill James’ place as bishop of the Jerusalem church.
- Simeon resisted the Judaizers
- In 66 AD Simeon led the church out of Jerusalem to Pella as the Roman armies approached
64 Rome Burns
- It began the night of July 18 in the wooden shops in the SE end of the Great Circus
- The fire raged for 7 nights and 6 days
- Then it burst out again and burnt 2 more parts of the city for 3 more days.
- (London’s fire of 1666 lasted 4 days; Chicago’s fire of 1871 lasted 36 hours.)
- 10 of the 14 regions of the city were destroyed. Only 2/7 of the city was left.
- The public blamed Nero.
- Historians blame Nero and his ambitions to rebuild Rome as Neropolis
- To escape responsibility Nero blamed an already suspicious group, Christians
- Tacitus: “a vast multitude” were put to death in the most shameful manner:
- Christians were crucified
- Christians were sewed up in skins of wild beast and exposed to dogs in arena
- Christians were covered with pitch or oil, nailed to post to be lit for street lights
- Within a year Peter was arrested and crucified upside down along w/ his wife
- In the spring of 68 Paul was led out on the Ostian Way and beheaded.
- On June 9, 68 Nero committed suicide by stabbing himself in the throat.
Anti-Christian Logic of Roman Empire
The Christians were despised and persecuted by the Romans for what the Roman Empire considered very logical reasons:
- Romans considered the state the highest good. The Christians obeyed the state but held to a higher law and a higher good.
- New religions were illegal and not permitted. Old, traditional religions were allowed to continue. Once Christianity was distinguished as a separate religion from Judaism it was illegal. If a Christian were of high rank in society they were banished, if they were of a lower social rank they were executed. This may be why John the Apostle was exiled instead of executed.
- Rome was old and had their traditional values. Christianity was bringing in new values that would undermine the traditions and the gods that had made Rome great.
- Roman religion was done with altars, images (idols), sacrifices and temples. The Christians had none of these since their religion was internal. The Christians appeared to have no God and were considered atheists by the Romans.
- The Christians refused emperor worship and instead worship what the Romans considered was a rival king, Jesus.
- The Romans accepted many Gods but the Christians only worshipped Jesus.
- Christians considered all men equal but the Roman Empire enforced slavery.
- Christians believed that all men should work to eat, but most Romans had slaves working and even preparing the food.
- The spread of Christianity interfered with the sale of household idols which interrupted a major business in many Roman cities.
- Rome knew the importance of family but some families were divided when one or more of their members became a Christian.
- The Christians began meeting in secret to avoid public speculation and interference, but this only made the Christians look more secretive and suspicious.
- The public’s misunderstanding of the Lord’s Supper led to the rumor that the Christians practice cannibalism.
- The practice of magic was illegal. The Christians appeared to practice magic with healing, casting out of demons and reading their magic books (scripture).
- Soon the problems in the Roman empire were blamed on the Christians for having led the Roman population away from the traditional gods that had made Rome great.
90-117 Asian and Roman Persecution
- Apostle was sent to Patmos during this persecution
- Emperor Domitian persecuted Jews for refusing to pay a poll tax for pagan temple
- Since Christians were considered part of Jewish faith they also were persecuted.
- During this time the governor of Bithynia (Asia Minor) wrote Emperor Trajan asking for advice concerning treatment of Christians. He says: “This superstition (Christianity) had spread in the villages and rural areas as well as in the larger cities to such an extent that the temples had been almost deserted and the sellers of sacrificial animals impoverished.” Trajan responsed to him by saying that if a person denies being a Christian to let them go. If they confess to being a Christian after being asked three times they were to be killed, unless they recanted and worshipped the Roman gods.
The Ten Major Periods of Roman Persecution
Details: Why? Where? How?
Persecuted only around Rome.
Nero blamed Christians for burning Rome.
Killed in Coliseum by animals; covered with pitch
and burnt in Nero’s courtyard; crucified
Christian’s exiled as political enemies & for not
offering emperor worship
Scattered in Rome and Asia
“Don’t ask, don’t tell” policy.
If accused the Christian could renounce Jesus,
if they refused after three times, execute them
In Asia income at temples suffered because so many had
Ignatius taken to Rome to be eaten by beasts
Hadrian’s policy continued.
Christians needed to prove loyalty to state by their
action of offering a pinch of incense to the Emperor
and calling him ‘Lord’.
False accusers were punished more severely.
Hadrian put down a Jewish revolt in Israel (132-135)
165 - 177
Christians were seen as being responsible for the
Marcus Aurelius, the great Stoic philosopher, personally
disliked the Christian faith.
Christians were not sought out
Justin Martyr lived in Rome & wrote a book, Apology, to Marcus Aurelius. In 165, Justin & six students beaten & beheaded
In 177, persecution was sever in Lyons, Gaul (France)
Pothinus, disciple of Polycarp, 92 year old bishop, in Lyons
Blandina, a slave girl tortured & crucified, Lyons
Sanctus, a deacon, Lyons
Offering a pinch of incense to the emperor was a patriotic gesture like saluting the flag.
In Carthage, North Africa, two young mothers, Perpetua & Felicitas refused to offer the incense. They died in the arena. (200)
In Alexandria, Egypt (202) Origen’s father, Leonides, was martyred.
Septimus Severus visited Britain in 208. Alban, Roman soldier helped a priest escaped and was martyred by the
Executed the church leaders
Christians were persecuted because they had supported the previous Emperor who had been assassinated by Maximinus
This was the first persecution that covered the entire Roman Empire. Rome was trying to return to their ancient
gods and Christianity needed to be wiped out.
Fabian, the bishop of Rome, was the first to die in this persecution in January of 250.
Church meetings forbidden
Christian property seized by the state
Saturninus was dragged to death by a bull in Toulouse, Gaul (France)
Valerian ordered the death of all Rome’s church leaders. Sixtus and Lawrence were two deacons who died.
The most severe of the ten persecutions.
Christians seen as a threat to imperial unity
Church leaders suffered torture and death by the rack, the scourge, roasting in fire, crucifixion and more.
In 311 the dying emperor issued the edict of tolerance.
30-100 Clement of Rome
- Knew and worked with Paul. Mentioned in Philippians 4:3
- According to Origen he was a disciple of the apostles.
- Irenaeus writes: “He had the preaching of the apostles still echoing in his ears and their doctrine in front of his eyes.”
- Learned to use Septuagint from Paul and Luke
- He wrote a letter from Rome to the Corinthians called “First Clement. It had been referred to by other writers but was not discovered until the 1600’s
- Clement writes after Domitian persecution about 98
- Clement writes the Corinthians because the church had overthrown the church’s leadership.
- Clement appeals to the Word of God as final authority and refers to 1 Cor. 1:10
- Clement gives testimony to: Trinity, divinity of Christ, salvation only by Christ, necessity of repentance, necessity of faith, justification by grace, sanctification by Holy Spirit, unity of the church, fruit of the Spirit.
- Clement is the pastor of Rome and knows no higher office
- He writes his book in the name of the church not in the name of his office
- Clement writes to a church of apostolic foundation with a tone of authority and thus reveals how easily and innocent the papacy began.
- 100 years after his death this same position in the same church will take authority and will excommunicate whole churches for much smaller differences
The Roman Emperors
27 BC-14 AD-Augustus
37-41 -Gaius (Caligula)
138-161 -Antoninus Pius
235-238-Maximus I Thrax
244-249-Philip I (the Arab)
268-270-Claudius II Gothicus
286-305, 307 -308-Maximianus
305-306-Constantius I Chlorus
306-337-Constantine I The Great
361-363-Julian I the Apostate
379-395-Theodosius I The Great
474-475, 477-480-Julius Nepos
63-107 Simeon, bishop of Jerusalem
- Simeon, son of Clophas (Joseph’s brother), was chosen in 63 to be the new bishop of Jerusalem by the surviving apostles and disciples of Jesus
- As Roman armies approached Jerusalem in 66 Simeon led the Jerusalem church across the Jordan into Pella in the Decapolis to save them.
- After the fall of Jerusalem, Simeon led the Christians back across the Jordan to the defeated city of Jerusalem, built a church and won many Jewish converts.
- In order to prevent another revolt after the fall of Jerusalem Emperor Vespasian ordered the death of anyone who was a descendant of David. Simeon escaped
- Emperor Domitian (81-96) followed up on the order to execute the line of David and was informed that there were grandsons of Jesus’ brother Jude. They were ordered to appear before Domitian. When Domitian saw how simple and poor they were he allowed them to live and considered them to be no threat.
- Simeon was later killed in 107 at the age of about 120 when Trajan gave a similar order to execute the line of David.
- Pastor of church in Antioch
- Contemporary pastor with Clement in Rome, Simeon in Jerusalem, Polycarp in Smyrna
- Antioch was a doorway to Gentile world and so became a seat of heretical tendencies which forced Antioch to develop sound doctrine and organize quickly
- Ignatius was tried in Antioch before Emperor Trajan and sent to Rome in chains for martyrdom in the Coliseum by being thrown to the lions.
- On his way to Rome he wrote seven letters that we still have: Ephesians, Magnesians, Trallians, Romans, Philadelphians, Smyrneans, and one to Polycarp, the Pastor in Smyrna.
- These are some quotes from those letters:
“I would rather die for Christ than rule the whole earth.”
“It is glorious to go down in the world, in order to go up into God.”
“Leave me to the beasts, that I may by them be made partaker of God. Rather fawn upon the beasts, that they may be to me a grave, and leave nothing of my body, that, when I sleep, I may not be burdensome to anyone. Then will I truly be a disciple of Christ, when the world can no longer even see my body.”
- His remains were brought back to Antioch.
- Ignatius’ attitude toward martyrdom exceeds the genuine apostolic resignation which is equal willing to depart or remain. He degenerates into morbid fanaticism. This is an age when martyrdom was sought and glorified.
- Knew the apostles and was one of John’s disciples
- John placed his as the bishop of Smyrna.
- He had trained Irenaeus and was friends with Ignatius and Papias.
- He was captured as an 86 year old man and burnt at the stake in Smyrna.
- His last days, capture, and death are recorded in the letter “The martyrdom of Polycarp”
Disciples of the Apostles and Early Bishops
- Paul placed Timothy in position in Ephesus
- John, the apostle, arrived from Jerusalem in 66 AD
- Polycarp (70-155) was a disciple of John. He was the bishop in Smyrna, near Ephesus. Polycarp trained and sent Irenaeus (115-202) to Gaul (France) and Irenaeus trained Hippolytus (170-236) who went to Rome to oppose the bishop.
- Papias, was a bishop in Hierapolis (by Colosse and near Ephesus). Papias’ book Sayings of the Lord has been lost but is heavily quoted by early church writers.
- Ignatius was appointed to Antioch
- Polycrates, (130-196), was the 8th bishop of Ephesus. He knew Polycarp and Irenaeus. Wrote to the Roman bishop Victor concerning Easter and was cut off from the Roman church until Irenaeus interceded.
- James, the Lord’s brother, was killed in 63 AD
- Simeon, the son of Clopas, followed James as bishop of Jerusalem
- Justus II
- Judas, (died 148) of the family of Jesus, the 15th bishop and last Hebrew bishop because in 135 AD Hadrian put down a Jewish revolt and Jews were forbidden to enter Jerusalem
- Marcus, the first gentile bishop of Jerusalem
- Cassian, and the list continues. . .
- First Paul and Peter
- Evodius a pagan convert of Peter led the church of Antioch
- Ignatius was the third bishop of Antioch until the time of Trajan in 117 AD. According to Eusebius Peter appointed him.
- Heron, (107-127)
- Cornelius, (127-154)
- Eros, (154-169)
- Theophilus, (169-182), wrote books, we still have his Apology to Autolycum. Born a pagan but became a Christian by reading Scriptures. Kept Gnostics out of Antioch
- Maximus I, (182-191)
- Serapion, (191-211), wrote several works, including a pamphlet against the Gospel of Peter.
- Linus of 2 Tim. 4:21 led church in Rome. Irenaeus says apostles placed him
- Cletus killed by Domitian
- Clement, in Phil.4:3 exiled and martyred around 98.
- Evaristus, 100-109
- Alexander I, holy water introduced, made additions to liturgy. Beheaded by Trajan.
- Sixtas, ruled during Emperor Hadrian
- Telesphorus, (125-136) listed celebrating Easter on Sunday not Passover; martyred
- Hyginus, organized ranks and positions in church; Gnostics Valentine & Cerdo came to Rome.
- Pius I, born a slave; brother, Hermas, wrote Shepherd; Excommunicated Marcion (142-155)
- Anicetus, (155-166) visited by Polycarp concerning Easter; Manichaeism; martyred.
- Soter, wrote to Corinth, martyred
- Eleutherius (174-189) – dealt with Montanism
- Victor I, (189-198), asserted Roman Church authority; imposed Roman’s Easter date by threatening excommunication; Latin replaced Greek.
- Its roots go back to the days of Paul and John. Both seem to deal with the false concepts in Colossians and 1 John.
- Christian tradition connects the founding of it to Simon Magus, who Peter rebukes in Acts
- Gnosticism sprang from the natural desire of humans to explain the origin of evil.
- Since evil can be associated with matter and flesh, the Gnostics tried to develop a philosophical system to disassociate God, who is spirit, from evil, matter and flesh.
- The second question it sought to answer was the origin of man. They did this by combining Greek philosophy and Christian theology. The Corinthians did this and were rebuked in First Corinthians 1 and 2.
- If the Gnostics had succeeded Christianity would have been reduced to a philosophical system.
- Dualism was one of their main statements of faith. The Gnostics insisted on a clear distinction between material and spiritual and a distinction between evil and good. Their conclusion: God could not have created the world.
- The gap between the world and God was bridged by a series of emanations that formed a hierarchy.
- One of these, known as Jehovah of the Old Testament, had rebelled and created the world. The Gnostics did not like the God of the Old Testament.
- To explain Jesus Christ they embraced a doctrine known as Docetism. Docetism teaches that since matter is evil Jesus did not have a human body. Either he was a phantom or the spirit of Christ came on the man Jesus between his baptism but left before his death.
- Salvation might begin with faith, but is only for the soul.
- The special knowledge (gnosis) that Christ exposed while here was of far greater benefit.
- Irenaeus refutes gnosticism in “Against Heresies”
- In 140 Marcion went to Rome and embraced gnosticism and developed it. Marcion was the first to develop a New Testament canon that he could use to match his Gnostic doctrine. This caused the church to begin to recognize certain books as scripture and others as less than God-breathed.
Marcion and the Gnostic Canon of Scripture
Marcion, the Gnostic, rejected the entire Old Testament and considered Matthew, John, Luke, I & II Timothy and Titus to be false and heretical. He accepted the following Christian books to support his Gnostic doctrine but only after changes had been made to each of them:
- Gospel of Luke
- First Corinthians
- Second Corinthians
- First Thessalonians
- Second Thessalonians
- Native of Asia Minor
- As a youth he had seen and heard Polycarp in Smyrna.
- He mentions Papias frequently and must have known him
- Became bishop of Lyons, Gaul (Spain) when the bishop died in persecution
- Lyons was a missionary church of Asia Minor
- Lived in Lyons during the persecution of 177
- Took a letter to the Roman bishop Eleutherus from the confessors
- Roman Bishop Victor was complelling the Asian churches to celebrate Easter on a different date.
- Irenaeus tried to protect Asian churches from Roman Bishops pretensions and aggression
- Roman Bishop Victor cut them off from communion.
- Irenaus says earlier Roman bishops didn’t demand agreement on this issue.
- Irenaus appeals to other bishops for support.
- Irenaus was martyred under Emperor Septimius Severus
190-194 Easter Conflict
- 150-155, Smyrna Bishop Polycarp visits Rome Bishop Anicetus. The issue comes up, is not resolved, Polycarp departs in peace saying this is how he celebrated Easter with John
- 170, the same controversy develops in Laodicea but is dealt with in peace
- 190-194, Rome Bishop Victor requires the Asian churches to abandon their Easter practices. The new Ephesian Bishop Polycrates appeals with a letter which is still in existence today. Victor wouldn’t listen, calls them heretics, excommunicates them and would not send them communion elements. Irenaeus interecedw by quoting Colossians 2:16: “The apostles have ordered that we should, ‘Judge no one in meat or in drink, or in respect to a feast day or a new moon or a Sabath day.’ ”
- The time of the Jewish Passover and the Easter fast created a violent controversy
- The issue becomes complicated and is not yet cleared up
- The issue was purely ritualistic and involved no doctrine
- Too much stress was laid on external uniformity
- Asia Minor’s views:
- Followed Jewish chronology
- Followed John and Philip’s example
- They celebrated the Christian for of the Passover on Nisan 14 and at the end of the day they broke their Easter fast with communion and the Love Feast
- Roman Church view:
- Appealed to early custom of celebrating Jesus death on a Friday
- Celebrated Easter always on a Sunday after the March full moon
- Nearly all the churches did it this way
- The Roman practice created an entire holy week of fasting to recall Lord’s suffering
- The Problem to the Roman Church: Part of the universal church was celebrating and feasting the Lord’s resurrection while another part of the world church was still fasting his death.
- The Nicean Council of 325 established as a law for the whole church by saying:
“Easter should be celebrated on the first Sunday after the first full moon succeeding the vernal equinox (March 21). If the full moon occurs on a Sunday, Easter-day is the Sunday after. Easter can be anywhere from
March 22 to April 25.” -Nicean Council of 325
- The last trace of the “heretics” from Asia was seen in the 500’s AD
100-165 Justin Martyr
- A Christian apologist trained in philosophy (Stoicism and Platonism) and became a Christian.
- He became the most notable writer of this century
- He was born in Palestine and searched energetically for truth as a young man in philosophical schools. While meditating alone by the sea side one day he was approached by an old man who exposed the weaknesses of his thinking and pointed him to the Jewish prophets who bore witness to Christ.
- Justin took this new faith back into the philosophical schools.
- His writings vigorous and earnest. They are written under the threat of persecution and are an urgent appeal to reason.
- He wrote “First Apology” to the Emperor Antoninus Pius (138-161) to clear away prejudice and misunderstanding about Christianity.
- In his “Dialogue with Trypho” he recounts an actual encounter in Ephesus with a Jew who accused Christians of breaking the Jewish law and worshipping a man. The debate was conducted with respect and courtesy on both sides, despite strong disagreement.
- He opened a school in Rome.
- Justin was martyred in Rome about 165
- From Pontus on the Black Sea, Marcion arrived in Rome in 140.
- He made a fortune as a shipowner
- His father was a bishop and excommunicated him.
- Marcion believed that the God of the Old Testament was different from the God and Father of the Lord Jesus Christ.
- Marcion taught that the God of the OT was unknowable and sheer justice. The God of the NT was revealed and was loving and gracious.
- The church of Rome excommunicated him in 144.
- Justin Martyr said Marcion was aided by the devil to blaspheme and den that God was the creator.
- Tertullian wrote “Against Marcion” about 207 and called him a formidable foe of true Christian doctrine.
- Marcion stated that Jesus was notborn of a woman but suddenly appeared in the synagogue at Capernaum in 29 AD.
- He taught that since creation was not the work of the true God the body must be denied.
- Marcion recognized Polycarp in Rome in 155 and Polycarp replied, “I recognize you as the firstborn of Satan.”
- The followers of Marcion were called Marcionites. Constantine absolutely forbade their meeting for worship. Most were absorbed into newer heretical teaching of Mani and Manicheism. There were reports of them in the 400’s. The council at Trullo 692 made provision for the reconciliation of Marcionites. There was lingering remains as late as the 900’s.
KEY POINTS (back to the top)
OTHER SITES (back to the top)
- Roman Emperors
- List of Popes with links to each Pope
- A Cross Reference Table of the Development of the Canon of the New Testament. You can see who accepted which book
BOOKS from Galyn's Shelf: (back to the top)
- Ante-Nicene Fathers, by Alexander Roberts, D.D. and James Donaldson, LL.D., 10 volumes, Hendrickson Pulishers, Peabody, Mass. 1995
- Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series 1, by Philip Schaff, 14 volumes, Hendrickson Pulishers, Peabody, Mass. 1995
- Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series 2, by Philip Schaff, 14 volumes, Hendrickson Pulishers, Peabody, Mass. 1995
- History of the Christian Church by Philip Schaff, five volumes, Eerdmans Printing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1910
- Great Leaders of the Christian Church by John D. Woodbridge, Moody Press, Chicago, 1988
- The 100 Most Important Events in Christian History by A. Kenneth Curtis, J. Stephen Lang, Randy Petersen, Baker Book House Co., Grand Rapids, 2004
- Christianity Through the Centuries, by Earle E. Cairns, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1996
- Dictionary of Christian Biography, edited by Michael Walsh, The Liturgical Press, Collegeville, Minnesota, 2001
- A Dictionary of Christian Biography, by Henry Wace, D.D. and William C. Piercy, M.A., Hendrickson PUblishers, Peabody, Mass., 1994
- A History of Christianity, by Kenneth Scott Latourette, two volumes, Prince Press, an imprint of Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, MA, 2003
- Exploring Church History, by Perry Thomas, World Publishing, Nashville, TN, 2005
- Chronological and Background Charts of Church History, by Robert C. Walton, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1986
- Handbook of Denominations in the United States, by Frank S. Mead and Samuel S. Hill, Abingdon Press, Nashville, 1985
- The Complete Guide to Christian Denominations, by Ron Rhodes, Harvest House PUblishers, Eugene, Oregon, 1995
- Nelson's Guide to Denominations, by J. Gordon Melton, Thomas Nelson, Nashville, Tenn., 2007
- Forerunners and Rivals of Christianity, by Francis Legge, University Books, New Hyde Park, NY, 1965
- The Heritics, by Walter Nigg, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc, 1962
- Heresies, by Harold O.J. Brown, Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, Mass., 1988
- Documents of the Christian Church, by Henry Bettenson, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 1967
- Early Christian Doctrines, J. N. D. Kelly, Prince Press, an imprint of Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, MA, 2003
- Christendom, Roland H. Bainton, Harper and Row, Pulishers, New York, NY, 1966
- Eerdmans' Handbook to the History of Christianity, Dr. Tim Dowley, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1977
- Principles of Monasticism, by Maurus Wolter, B. Herder Book Co., London, 1962
- History of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages, by Etienne Gilson, Mandom House, New York, NY, 1955
- The Reformation, by Earnest G. Schwiebert, Fortress Press, Minneapolis, MN, 1996
- The Apostolic Fathers, by J. B. Lightfoot and J. R. Harmer, Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1984
- God's Peoples, by Paul R. Spickard and Kevin M. Cragg, Baker Books, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1994
QUESTIONS (back to the top)