Verse by VerseTeaching
First Samuel
Second Samuel
First Kings
Second Kings
Second Chronicles
Song of Songs
Minor Prophets
First Corinthians
Second Corinthians
First Thessalonians
Second Thessalonians
First Timothy
Second Timothy
First Peter
Second Peter
First John
Second John
Third John
Topical Teaching:
Titanic Faith
Framework Bible School
Bible School 2004
Bible School 2012-2019
30 Questions
Mystery of the Church
Defending the Faith
Church History
The Nephilim
Wake Up, Church!
Basics for Living
Basic Doctrine
Eschatology Overview - Gen-Rev
End Times Basics
Eternal Rewards
Political Platform of Lord
Refuting Reform Doctrine
kosmos vs Kingdom 
(κόσμος vs Βασίλειο)
Understanding the Times
Brace for Impact: Prepare Soul

A Bible Teaching Ministry of Galyn Wiemers

Online Bible School
Previous Lesson Textbook - Framework for Christian Faith .pdf Next Lesson

Lesson 12 of 50 - Old Testament Survey (part six of six)

Online Audio or Video


Written Notes

Review Points


Supplementary Material

Source Books

Alexander's Battles

List of High Priest from
520 BC - 36 AD or
Joshua to Caiaphas

Timeline 201-63 BC w/ photos

2004 mp3 Audio

2009 mp3 Audio
1- 430-301 BC, Alexander the Great
2- 300-170 BC, The Syrian Wars, Daniel 11, Antiochus
3- 172-165 BC,
Maccabean Revolt
4- 164-30 BC,
The Hasmoneans

Real Player Video
1- 430-301 BC, Alexander the Great
2- 300-170 BC, The Syrian Wars, Daniel 11, Antiochus
3- 172-165 BC,
Maccabean Revolt

4- 164-30 BC,
The Hasmoneans

Essay Tests:
Sect E, Ch 22 - Describe the Maccabean Revolt

430-301 - Alexander the Great
.mp3 audio - 430-301 - Alexander the Great

300-170 - Syrian Wars, Daniel 11
.mp3 audio - 300-170 -Syrian Wars; Daniel 11; Antiochus IV 

172-165 - Maccabean Revolt
.mp3 audio - 172-165 - Maccabean Revolt

164-30 BC - The Hasmoneans
.mp3 audio -  164-30 BC - The Hasmoneans


2014-15 CLASS VIDEO, AUDIO for this time period are HERE





Alexander the Great, Maccabean Revolt, Rome and Herod
(part six)


  • Philip, son of the Macedonian king, was taken hostage to Thebes, Greece for 2 years at the age of 15.
  • In Greece Philip learned military science and the Greek passion to overthrow the Persians

Philip of


  • Philip becomes co-regent with his father in Macedonia and demonstrates ability as a general and in diplomacy



  • Philip becomes king of Macedonia
  • Philip turns the Macedonian military into a tool of expansion by taking Greek cities and the gold and silver mines of Philippi
  • Philip reorganizes the Macedonian army and begins to use phalanx (fay-lanks) which are heavily armed infantry troops in tight ranks of 8-12 rows deep that carried long spears and overlapping shields.  The phalanx were supported with a cavalry
  • Alexander the Great is born



  • Philip had become the master of Greece

Greece Conquered


  • Philip announces his decision to his Greek confederacy that he was going to invade Persia.  The Greek city/states united behind Philip

Philip Unites


  • Philip sends 10,000 troops across the Aegean Sea to Troy or Troas
  • Summer, Philip is assassinated at his daughters wedding with an royal attendant stepped forward and stabbed him.

Philip Assassinated


Alexander the Great Conquers the World



  • Philip’s son, Alexander (356-323), becomes king of Macedonia and Greece, age 20.
  • Educated by Aristotle and memorized the “Iliad” at 13 years old.
  • Macedonia’s ambassador to Athens at 18 years old.
  • Mother Olympias taught him his ancestor was the Greek god Achilles and his father, Philip, came from the line of Hercules.
  • Thebes rebelled against Alexander so he attacked and sold 30,000 of its people into slavery.  All of Greece united behind Alexander.



  • At the age of 22 Alexander leaves Pella for Asia Minor to begin an invasion of Persia with 30,000 foot soldiers and 5,000 cavalry.  Alexander would never see Greece again.
  • He covered 300 miles in 20 days to arrive at the Hellespont.  He crossed it and sailed for Troy.  At a temple to Athena in Troy Alexander exchanged his armor for the sacred armor from the Trojan War.
  • Alexander led his troops across the wild Granicus River to meet Persian soldiers but they fled.
  • Greek colonies along the coast welcomed Alexander.  In seven months Alexander controlled the coast of Asia Minor.
  • Alexander is the “hero-king” of Daniel 11:3

Alexander begins to Conquer

Daniel 11:3


  • Alexander goes through Gordium. 
  • In a night attack he passes through the Cilician Gates which should have been easily defended since two loaded camels could not pass through together.
  • Fall, Alexander meets the Persian king, Darius III, for the first time at Issus. The Greeks outmaneuver the Persians.  Alexander and the Champions, his elite cavalry, charge and collapse the Persian frontline.  Alexander pursues Darius III.  Darius escapes into the night but Alexander spends the night in Darius’ royal tent.
  • This battle is the meeting of the ram from the east with two horns (Darius III, Persia) and the goat from the west with one prominent horn (Alexander, Greece) from Daniel’s prophecy in Daniel 8.

Alexander Faces
Darius III

Daniel 8


  • Alexander continues south between the Mountains of Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to Tyre
  • Alexander sends ambassadors to the island city of Tyre, a half mile off the coast.  But the people of Tyre kill the ambassadors and throw their bodies over the wall into the sea.  Alexander then takes the next seven months to build a 200 foot wide and a half mile long mound in the sea in order to make a road out to the island city of Tyre.  Alexander then rolls his catapults and battering rams up to the wall and destroys the city of Tyre.  This fulfills Ezekiel’s prophecy in Ezekiel 26:2-18
  • Darius offers Alexander his daughter in marriage, $300,000,000 in gold, the territory west of the Euphrates (1/3 of the Persian Empire).  Alexander declines and leaves to conquer Egypt.
  • On his way to Egypt the Philistine city of Gaza refused to open it gates and was destroyed by Alexander.
  • Egypt welcomed Alexander who stopped first at Memphis and then started one of several cities he would call Alexandria.  While in Egypt Alexander goes out in the desert to Ammon to speak with the priest of the goat-god Ammon
  • Alexander leaves Egypt and heads back towards Darius and goes to Jerusalem
  • Jaddua was the high priest from 371-320 and watched Alexander’s conquest.  Jaddua is mentioned in Nehemiah 12:10, 11.
  • Jaddua began to think that this young Macedonian might be the goat or the four-winged leopard of Daniel’s prophecy
  • As Alexander approached Jerusalem Jaddua did not lead Jerusalem to resist but instead put on his high priestly garments, took the scriptures in his hands, opened the gates and went out to meet Alexander.  The other priests went with him dressed in white robes.
  • Alexander got off his horse, hurried over to Jaddua and bowed down in front of him.
  • Alexander then said that he had seen Jaddua in a vision and that Jaddua was a representative of heaven.
  • Alexander told Jaddua that what he had to say would be of great advantage to Alexander.
  • Jaddua then opened the scroll to Daniel and read to Alexander the prophecies of himself.
  • Alexander then promised Jerusalem would never be touched nor its temple polluted.  He entered Jerusalem and worshipped as a Gentile at the temple.  Before leaving in peace Alexander gave gifts to Jerusalem and to Jaddua.
  • Alexander moved north to Samaria who killed Alexander’s deputy and rebelled.   Samaria was destroyed.
  • Alexander moved to Tyre and rested his troops before he began to move across Syria to meet Darius III

Alexander Destroys Tyre

Ezekiel 26

Alexander Destroys Gaza

Alexander in Egypt

Alexander in


Nehemiah 12:10, 11

Alexander in Samaria


  • In preparation to meet Alexander, Darius III burnt the fertile plains to cut off Alexander’s food supply and leveled a plain called Gaugamela so he could use his chariots with curved blades in the wheels.
  • Darius III attacked Alexander with the chariots but the Greeks parted their ranks trapping the chariots who could not stop or turn quickly. The Persians were pulled from their chariots and Darius fled on horse back.
  • Alexander moved into Babylon and rested his troops for a month.  The people of Babylon offered no resistance.
  • Alexander appointed a Persian as governor in his first step to uniting the west with the east.  Alexander and his generals also wore Persian clothing and married Persian women.
  • Alexander then moves to Persepolis.  In revenge for the Persians burning of Athens in 480 BC, Alexander burns Persepolis.

Darius III Flees

Alexander in

Alexander in


  • Spring, Alexander leaves to catch up with Darius III.  Alexander travels 36 miles a day and when he catches Darius III he has already been killed by the Persian generals

Darius III Killed


  • Alexander continues conquering to the east thinking he will reach the end of the world.
  • His army finally refuses to go any further and Alexander turns back towards Babylon
  • Alexander and his army had left Greece 10 years before to attack Persia.
  • They faced great difficulties in their return to Babylon

Alexander in the East


  • Alexander arrives back in Babylon.  At the age of 32 he is worn out from wounds, hardships and over drinking. 
  • June 11, Alexander is sick with a fever and dies.
  • At his death his oldest son, Hercules, is killed by his generals.  A second son, Alexander II is born after his father died and is killed at the age of 13 in 310.
  • Alexander’s Generals:
  • Ptolemy takes control of Egypt
  • Seleucus takes Babylon
  • Antigonus seize Syria from Ptolemy
  • Lysimachus went to Thrace and Asia Minor
  • Antipater and his son Cassander took Macedonia and Greece

Alexander Dies

Alexander’s Generals Divide

Daniel 11:4


The Generals of Alexander Divide his Empire



  • The Battle of Ipsus:  Antigonus was trying to rebuild Alexander’s empire.  At Ipsus Antigonus was opposed by Ptolemy, Seleucus, Lysimachus and Cassander.
  • Antigonus’ cavalry routed Seleucus’ cavalry
  • but, Seleucus’ elephants blocked Antigonus’ cavalry from returning
  • allowing Seleucus’ mounted archers to move in on the flank on Antigonus’ infantry
  • Antigonus was killed and the remnant of his troops fled west to Ephesus
  • Seleucus now controls Babylon, Syria and eastern Asia Minor.  He moves his capital to the Mediterranean coast and calls it Antioch.
  • Ptolemy is the “King of the South.”  Seleucus served as a general under Ptolemy in the Battle of Ipsus so he is the “commander” that became “stronger”.  Seleucus outlived the other generals of Alexander in 53 years of fighting and regained most of Alexander’s empire.

Battle of Ipsus

Seleucus takes

Daniel 11:5

Ptolemy, King of the South


Syrian Wars.  Seleucid vs. Ptolemy or the King of the North vs. the King of the South



  • First Syrian War: Ptolemy II loses his Syrian coastal areas to Antiochus I but reclaimed these territories by 271.
  • Ptolemy maintains control of Judah

First Syrian War

Ptolemy Controls Judah


  • Second Syrian War: Antiochus II goes to war to reclaim Judah and Syria from Ptolemy II.
  • As part of the peace treaty and as an attempt to get into the Seleucid’s royal line, Ptolemy II gave his daughter Berenice Syra to Antiochus II.  She is the daughter of the King of the South in Daniel 11:6
  • Antiochus II removes his first wife Laodice.
  • Antiochus II and Berenice have a son  
  • The first wife, Laodice, poisons Antochus II

Second Syrian War

Daniel 11:6


  • Third Syrian War:  This war begins when the former queen, Laodice, wants to place her son, Seleucus II, on the Seleucid throne but the new queen, Berenice, daughter of Ptolemy, wants her new born son to be the heir.
  • Berenice’s brother, Ptolemy III comes to support her in Antioch only to find her and the son assassinated.  Ptolemy III declares war on the crowned son Seleucus II.
  • Ptolemy III is successful in taking Syria and even occupies Antioch for a while.
  • Ptolemy III is the “one from her family line” of Daniel 11:7-8 who “will attack the forces of the king of the North and enter his fortress (Antioch)”.
  • The Kingdom of Ptolemy, or the king of the South, is at the height of its power.


Third Syrian War

Daniel 11:7, 8



High Priests from Alexander the Great to the Maccabees


  • 371-320
  • Greeted Alexander the Great at Jerusalem in 332 BC
  • Died after Alexander


  • 320-280

Simon the Just

  • 280-260
  • Repaired the temple again
  • Described as “morning star”, “sun shining upon the temple”
  • Tried to turn people away from the Greek culture
  • President of the Sanhedrin
  • One of the first great rabbis.
  • His teachings are recorded in the Mishna
  • Died in 291


  • 260-245
  • Simon’s brother
  • Requested to have Hebrew scriptures translated to Greek
  • First five books translated in 277 BC
  • The completed Greek translation is the Septuagint (LXX)


  • 245-240
  • Simon and Eleazar’s brother

Onias II

  • 240-218
  • Son of Simon the Just
  • He was an infant when his father died
  • An unworthy priest.  Josephus calls him “a man of little soul”
  • Neglected to pay Ptolemy III the yearly tribute for years
  • Ptolemy sent Athenion, an official, to demand the money. Joseph, Onias’ nephew, pleaded for the Jews and then became the first tax collector for a foreign power in 227

Simon II

  • 218-185
  • During his time as high priest there were tow basic parties in Israel:
  1. The Pharisees – who held to the traditions and the scripture
  2. The Hellenizers – who embraced the modern Greek culture

Onias III

    • 185-175
    • Son of Simon II
    • Very good high priest
    • The last high priest to inherit the priestly position.  After this it would be purchased or be appointed by a king or official
    • 2 Maccagees says, “The holy city was inhabited in all peace, and the laws were kept very well, because of the godliness of Onias, the high –priest, and his hatred of wickedness.”


    • 175-172
    • Buys the high priestly position for 440 talents from Antiochus Epiphanies
    • Changed his Jewish name, Joshua, to the Greek name, Jason
    • Began to Hellenize Jerusalem
    • Former high priest Onias is put in exile


    • 172-162
    • Menelaus buys priesthood from Antiochus Ephiphanes from 300 talents more than Jason had.
    • Onias III, the former high priest, is killed in exile for protesting the selling of the priesthood
    • Menelaus spends five years of the Maccabean revolt hiding in the Acra, the fortress in Jerusalem


    • 162-159
    • Hellenized Jew that is appointed by Seleucids but rejected by Maccabees.
    • Escorted to Jerusalem by Seleucid general.   Executes 60 Hasidim Jews upon arriving.

High Priests



  • Joseph, of the priestly family, son of Tobias and nephew of Onias II, open his
    home to Ptolemy’s official Athenion.  Joseph pleaded for the Jew and pleased the official.  Joseph followed the official back into Egypt but on the way he heard men talking who were on their way to Egypt to receive the right to collect the taxes for Ptolemy in Syria, Phoenicia, Judea and Samaria.  Joseph offered twice the amount to obtain the privilege of collecting taxes.  He was given 2,000 men to assist him.  Joseph became the first Jewish publican or tax collector. Joseph collected taxes from his own people for Ptolemy for 22 years.  He made himself very rich by keeping the extra money that he collected.

Tax Collectors


  • Fourth Syrian War:  Antiochus III decides to reclaim Syria and Judah from Ptolemy IV
  • Antiochus III takes cities in Israel.  After a year of diplomatic meetings Ptolemy IV defeats Antiochus III to maintain control of Judah a little longer.
  • Ptolemy IV gave rich gifts to the temple and offered sacrifices there.  He insisted upon entering the Holy of Holies against the priest’s protest.  As he approached the temple he was smitten and carried away half dead.
  • Ptolemy IV then persecuted the Jews in Alexandria, Egypt.
  • Egypt was in revolt and the kingdom was declining.

Fourth Syrian War

Daniel 11:9


  • The Fifth Syrian War: With the death of Ptolemy IV Egypt was in a state of anarchy.  Antiochus III (one of two sons of Dan. 11:10) invaded Syria and Israel and came “like an irresistible flood” all the way to Gaza (Dan. 11:11). 
  • Ptolemy IV, the king of the South, meet and defeated Antiochus at Gaza (11:12).
  • Later near the head of the Jordan River, Antiochus III destroyed Ptolemy IV. (11:13)
  • In 200 BC a Roman ambassador demanded that Antiochus III not invade Egypt since that was the Roman’s supply of grain for Italy.
  • Ptolemy’s problems continued in Egypt with revolt by native Egyptians and Jews intensified as taxes increased to support these wars. (Daniel 11:14)
  • Antiochus III did not invade Egypt but he continued to take coastal cities including Sidon even though Ptolemy IV sent three of their best generals to rescue the fortress. (Daniel 11:15)
  • Antiochus III
  • Ptolemy IV signed a peace treaty in 195 giving Syria back to Antiochus and agreed to marry Antiochus’ daughter Cleopatra I. (Daniel 11:17)

Fifth Syrian War

Antiochus III,
the Great

Daniel 11:10-17


  • Rome is expanding to the east towards the Seleucid kingdom.  Antiochus III attacks but is defeated by “a commander” who was the Roman consul Lucius Scipio Asiaticus at Themopylae. 
  • Rome forces him to pay the expense of the war for 12 years and to give them his son Antiochus IV as a hostage. (Daniel 11:18)

Daniel 11:18


  • To help raise money to pay Rome Antiochus robs the temple of Jupiter-Belus in the east.  In a mob he falls from his horse and is killed.  (Daniel 11:19)

Daniel 11:19


  • Joseph, son of Tobias, the tax collector for Ptolemy, had two wives.  One wife had seven sons and the other wife had one son named Hyrcanus.  Joseph sent Hyrcanus to congratulate Ptolemy on the birth of his son but while he is there Hyrcanus bribed Ptolemy for the authority to collect taxes on the east side of the Jordan.  When Hyrcanus’ father, Joseph, and his seven step-brothers find out they are furious and go out to kill him.  Two brothers die but Hyrcanus escapes to the east of Jordan.  The city of Jerusalem and the land of Judea chose sides.  The high priest Simon II sides with the father, Joseph, and the five remaining sons.
  • There are now two divisive issues in Jerusalem:
  • Pharisees or Hellenizers
  • Joseph, the tax collector, or Hyrcanus, the tax collector



  • Antiochus III’s successor, Seleucus IV, now has the responsibility of paying the 1,000 talents each year.
  • The new high priest in Jerusalem is the righteous Onias III.  Hyrcanus has deposited his money in the temple. 
  • Apollonius, the governor of Judea, tells Seleucus about about money in the Jerusalem temple.
  • A tax collector named Heliodorus was sent to plunder the temple in Jerusalem for Seleucus IV
  • 2 Maccabees tells the story like this: Heliodorus, the tax collector from Seleucus IV, asks Onias the priest about the money in the temple. Heliodorus begins to enter the temple but suddenly saw a terrible rider on a horse with fair covering and horse harness of solid gold.  The horse ran towards Heliodorus bucking and kicking.  Two young men with great beauty and strength scourged him with whips.  Heiodorus left.
  • Antiochus IV is in Rome as a hostage with twenty others until the Seleucids pay off the penalty for their war with Rome.
  • Seleucis IV exchanges his son, Demetrius, for Antiochus IV who is being held as a hostage in Rome.  This results in Antiochus IV poisoning his brother, Seleucis IV.
  • The heir to the throne is Seleucis’ son Demetrius who is a hostage in Rome.
  • Antiochus poses as the guardian of Demetrius and takes the throne. 
  • Soon Demetrius is murdered and Antiochus has secured the throne for himself.
  • Since Jerusalem and Judea are filled with strife and division Onias decides to go visit Seleucus IV but Antiochus IV kills Seleusus IV first. 
  • Onias’ brother Joshua goes to Antiochus IV to offer him 440 talents for the high priestly position in Jerusalem.  Joshua promises the Hellenize all of Jerusalem and asks for permission to build a gymnasium in Jerusalem to introduce the youth to the Greek games and customs. Joshua changes his name to Jason.

Daniel 11:20 -21

Antiochus IV Epiphanes

Onias III


Joshua Buys
High Priest


  • Joshua sends Menelaus to Antiochus IV with his annual payment for the High Priest position, but Menelaus offers 300 talents more than Joshua and promises to Hellenize Jerusalem more vigorously.  Antiochus IV appoints Menelaus, who is from the tribe of Benjamin, to the office of high priest.  The Jews are outraged.
  • Menelaus then robes the temple treasury of some gold vessels.
  • Onias III, the true high priest who lost his position when Joshua (Jason) bought it, protests from exile and is executed by Antiochus IV.  This fulfills Daniel 11:22.

Menelaus, a Benjamite, buys the high priest position

Daniel 11:22



  • Sixth Syrian War: Ptolemy declares war on Antiochus IV Epiphanes.
  • Antiochus IV Epiphanes is successful and the two regents who led Egypt for the very young Ptolemy VI were killed.
  • Antiochus IV Epiphanes actually takes the young Ptolemy VI into his own guardianship during negotiations with Egypt which gives Antiochus IV Ephiphanes control of Egypt.
  • Alexandria in Egypt revolts and Antiochus lays siege to Alexandria.

Sixth Syrian War

Antiochus IV Epiphanes

Roman Senate

Jerusalem Under Control of Seleucids

Daniel 11:25-27


Hellenism Comes to Jerusalem

Hellenism began with Alexander the Great.  Alexander began by freeing Greece from Persia but soon found himself as a unifier of the eastern and western world.  Alexander had the Greek culture and ideas personally instilled into him by Aristotle. 
Greek culture or Hellenism came to Jerusalem in art, literature, philosophy, religion, civic life and government.  Greek civilization was a product of city life and so it was best developed and reproduced in the city.  Alexander started and populated cities.  Within 20 years of having left Macedonia the world was filled with Hellenism.
Greek city life included sports. Cities would build gymnasiums were young men trained their bodies, practiced their games and met friends.  This was a contrast to the Jewish way of life which centered on the temple.  Hellenism focused on enjoying this life; Judaism focused on glorifying God.  Art and architecture were demonstrated in the court house for public business, the theatre for dramatic presentations, the gymnasium for training, the stadium for athletic contest, the hippodrome for chariot races, the colonnaded street for shops, the agora for market place and meetings, the stoa (pillared porch) for lounging on a hot afternoon.  All the buildings were decorated with statues of the gods or great men.  The precise and beautiful Greek language produced great literary art and quickly became the language of business, government, literature, philosophy and art.  Hellenism brought change to the culture.  Months were renamed and years were counted differently.  The Greeks in Jerusalem counted the years beginning in our year 312 BC when Seleucus defeated Antigonus.  Jewish men changed their names to Greek names.  Solomon became Alexander; Joseph became Menelaus, Judas became Aristobulus, Joshua became Jason or Jesus.  But with Hellenism also came the lose of  the righteous ways of the Lord and traditional culture values established by God for the protection and well-being of a society.  Men were worshipped for the athletic ability.  Political freedom produced deeply divided political parties.  Personal righteousness and character declined.  The rich aristocrats welcomed Hellenism first but the middle class and the poor tended to resist and held to the Law of Moses and the ways of the Lord.  The Jews were divided in the pious Jews and the Hellenistic Jews.



  • While Antiochus IV is dealing with Jerusalem, the young Ptolemy VI sides with his brother in Egypt against Antiochus IV Ephiphanes.
  • Having lost power in Egypt Antiochus IV invades but Egypt has sent to Rome for help
  • Menelaus plunders the temple and Judea revolts against Antiochus IV Ephiphanes.  Antiochus IV leaves Egypt and goes to Jerusalem.
  • A rumor arrives back in Jerusalem that  Antiochus IV has been killed in battle
  • The pious Jews begin to slaughter the Hellenistic Jews

Jerusalem Revolts


  • The Roman Senate, being interested in their supply of grain from Egypt, sends Gaius Popilius Laenas to Alexandria to be there when Antiochus IV arrived from his victories in the Egyptian city of Memphis.
  • Laenas met Antiochus IV outside Alexandria and gave him an ultimatum from the Roman Senate: Evacuate Egypt.  When Antiochus said he needed time to think about it Laenas drew a circle around him in the sand with his cane and told him to decide before he left the circle.  Antiochus was outraged, but agreed and headed back to secure his new territory in Judea.
  • December, Antiochus hears the report that Jerusalem is in revolt against Hellenism and Menelaus (Antiochus IV Epiphanes’ appointed high priest)
  • Antiochus arrives in Jerusalem and begins to punish the Jews and saves Menelaus.
  • Homes are looted and burned.  Thousands of women and children are sold into slavery.  22,000 soldiers attack and are stationed in the garrison in Jerusalem
  • Menelaus leads Antiochus IV Epiphanes into the temple.  Together the two plunder it and desecrate it.
  • December 25, An altar to Zeus is built and replaces the altar of burnt offerings.  An image, or statue of Zeus is placed in the Holy of Holies that resembles Antiochus IV Epiphanes.
  • The Jews are forced to worship the image by offering swine flesh to the statue of Zeus/Antiochus Epiphanes.

Rome Arrives

Daniel 11:29-31

Abomination that causes


  • Menelaus is restored as the high priest in Jerusalem
  • Soldiers force Jews to build altars and make sacrifices to Zeus and worship Antiochus IV Ephiphanes
  • Torahs are burnt
  • Circumcision forbidden.  Violators are tortured and killed

The Law Forbidden


The Maccabean Revolt begins at Modein

Modein in Judea

The Seleucid officer, Apelles, and his detachment of soldiers arrived in Modein one morning.  They ordered the people to meet in the town square by the stone altar the soldiers had built and the image of Zeus they had carried in.  Mattathias, an old Jewish priest, stood with his five sons: Judas, John, Simon, Eleazar and Jonathan.  Apelles challenged Mattathias to lead the city of Modein in worship by taking the sacrificial ax and offering the pig that the Greek’s had provided.  Apelles offered Mattathias the purple cloak and floppy purple hat, the priestly garments of a Hellenistic priest, and promised him gold and favor from Antiochus Ephiphanes.  Mattathis replied,

“Although all the Gentiles in the king’s realm obey him, so that each forsakes the religion of his fathers and consents to the kings’ orders, yet I and my sons and my kinsmen will keep to the covenant of our fathers.  God forbid that we should forsake the law and the commandments.  We will not obey the words of the king nor depart from our religion in the slightest degree.”

Then a Hellenistic Jew from the village crowd stepped forward to accept the offer and sacrifice the pig to Zeus.  Filled with righteous fury Mattathias sprang out of the crowd and slew the apostate Jew on the altar.  He then turn and slew the stunned Seleucid officer while his five sons and the citizens of Modein killed the soldiers.  After the Greek altar had been torn down Mattathias commanded:

“Let everyone who is zealous for the law and who stands by the covenant follow me.”

Knowing their village would be burnt and the citizens killed the villagers left with their sheep, goats and cattle to the steep wooded hills of Gophna nine miles northeast of Modien.  In the hills of Modien they declared war on Antiochus Epiphanes.



  • Maccabean revolt begins and gains support of the Hasidim, the “pious ones”.
  • From the hills of Gophna Mattathias and his sons would visit villages at night to recruit men, tip over altars, kill Hellenistic Jews.

Hills of Gophna


  • Mattathias dies
  • Judas became the leader and struck with such force he became known as “the hammer” or “maccabaeus”. 
  • Judas the hammer or Judas Maccabaeus found success even though his untrained, unequipped men had to face the trained armies of Hellenistic Jews who were backed by the Seleucid military with bronze armor, the best weapons and Greek generals with world class campaign experience.
  • Judas Maccabaeus took control of villages north of Jerusalem with this procedure:
  • Find an isolated Seleucid patrol
  • Attack and kill the Seleucid soldiers
  • Take their weapons and armor.  Hide their bodies
  • Then wait for a search patrol that would be sent out from the Seleucid garrison in Jerusalem.  Attack and kill this second patrol.
  • Attack and kill the third patrol that was sent.
  • Continue attacking patrols until Jerusalem stopped sending patrols and Jerusalem’s contact with the Seleucid kingdom was cut off.
  • Apollonius, the Seleucid governor in Samaria, marched out with 3,000 troops through the hills of Gophna to go help the troops trapped in Jerusalem.  Judas set up his troops along a narrow winding uphill. Judas stationed his troops along both sides of the pass with slings, stones and archers with one group standing at the top to meet Apollonius.  When the Seleucid forces were driven back into a bottle neck Judas’ troops on the sides rained down stones and arrows.  The Seleucid troops were slaughtered, Apollonius was killed and Judas took the governors sword.
Apollonius vs. Judas Maccabeaus

”The Hammer”

Apollonius (3,000) vs.
Judas (1,000)

Judas Controls Northern Judah


  • Antiochus IV Ephiphanes plans to annihilate the Maccabean rebels and sends General Seron.
  • General Seron led the 6,000 Seleucid troops down the Mediterranean coast then turned east towards Jerusalem through Lydda and up the steep ascent of Beth-horon.  Judas choose to meet him with his 1,200 men on a steep narrow pass between Lower Beth-horon and Upper Beth-horon.  Judas again divided his men into three groups.  Two on the sides of the pass and he and his elite troops called “The Faithful” at the head of the pass.  General Seron crossed the Plain of Sharon and took the first valley that led to Jerusalem.  This road would ascend 1,500 feet in two miles and at times was a narrow trail.  At the top of a narrow trail Judas showed himself and his elite troops.  Seron decided he could easily drive through the few Maccabean troops.  Seron continued up the pass to reach Judas only to find himself trapped.  When Judas sounded the shofars the archers and slingers fired on the trapped Seleucid troops.  Seron was killed and the Seleucids tore off their armor and threw down their weapons and were chased back to the costal plain.
  • Judas had now defeated two generals and defeated two armies.  The other nations around began to talk about the Macabees in Judah.  The Maccabee revolt had become a major rebellion against Antiochus IV Epiphanes.
    Seron vs. Judas Maccabeaus

Seron (6,000) vs.
Judas (1,200)

The Battle of


  • The Seleucid generals, Nicanor and Gorgias, came down the coast to kill Judas, enslave the Jews and end their religion with 20,000 soldiers.  The Maccabees spent the day before fasting and praying then left their camp in Mizpah in the night with the fires still burning.  They went 10 miles through the rough terrain to Emmaus.  There the Seleucid’s had set up their camp with 500 cavalry, the imperial troops and slave merchants who had already posted the price for the Jewish slaves back in Syria.  The Seleucid’s had encircled their camp with a trench with pointed shafts at the bottom.  General Gorgias led his troops towards the Maccabee’s camp into the night on a search and destroy mission.  General Nicanor stayed at the camp in Emmaus.  When Gorgias found the empty camp at Mizpah he figured the Maccabees had scattered into the night and he began to comb the countryside for them.  Judas fed his troops outside the camp of the Seleucids and moved into battle lines to attack General Nicanor who thought Judas was being attacked at Mizpah by General Gorgias.  When the sun rose the Maccabees could be seen stationed on high ground above the Seleucid camp.  Judas led the charge down towards the camp of Nicanor and shattered their discipline ranks and pushed them back into their spiked trenches.  Nicanor’s troops fled.  Judas burnt their camp and killed 3,000 Syrians in six miles. Judas reassembled his troops back at the Emmaus camp, forbid looting and waited for General Gorgias to return.  When Gorgias’ tired and hungry men returned and saw the organized Maccabees they also fled.  In the Seleucid camp the Jews found treasure chests full of gold and silver from the slave traders and enough armor and weapons for the Maccabean forces.  Judea celebrated and Judas’ numbers grew to 10,000.  The Hellenistic Jews in Jerusalem fled to the Acra, the Seleucid stronghold in Jerusalem
    Nicanor vs. Judas Maccabeaus

Nicanor (20,000) vs. Judas (3,000)

The Battle of


  • Judas Maccabeus is now in full control of Judah although the Seleucid forces and the Hellenistic Jews still are holding out in the the Acra.  The Acra was a stronghold built in 167 by the Seleucid forces.  It was probably located to the NW of the temple on the mound called Acra.
  • The Seleucids send Lysias, the man in charge of the Western half of the Seleucid kingdom,  down the coast with 65,000 troops.  He turns east on the Idumaean border and then marched along the mountain ridges rather than the valleys.  Lysias takes the Judah’s border fortress of Beth-Zur and is one days march (16 miles) from Jerusalem.  Judas decided not to attack such a large army head on but instead attack as they marched.  Judas broke his 10,000 men into groups 1,000. Judas waited for Lysias one mile north of Beth-Zur.  Judas had his troops slash through the Seleucid troops to separate the lead troops from the main body of troops.  Then the Maccabees rained down arrows on the lead troops who tried to flee back to the main body but found themselves cut off.  Judas then crushed the isolated lead troops with his elite troops, “The Faithful”.  Lysias could not counter attack and withdrew back to Beth-zur with 5,000 dead.  Lysias offered Judas and the rebels a compromise treaty through the appointed high priest Menelaus (who was still trapped in the Acra) that any rebel who laid down their weapons and returned home would be allowed to lie in accordance with their own religious law.  Lysias returned to to Antioch and the Hellenist were left trapped in the Acra.  After the crops were harvested Judas moved into the city of Jerusalem.
  • December, the city of Jerusalem is in ruins from the destruction by Antiochus IV in 168.  The city is nearly empty with burnt houses lining the stone and mortar filled streets.  The Maccabees destroy the shrines to Zeus that are on the street corners and in the market places.  In order to get to the temple Judas had to station archers behind a wicker wall of shields in the temple courtyard to keep the 2,000 Seleucid soldiers who were only about 200 feet away from shooting arrows.  Under the supervision of the priest the Maccabean soldiers cleaned up and rebuilt the temple.  They dismantled the Jewish altar that had been defiled with the offering of pig and other pagan sacrifices.  They built a new altar out of rough uncut stones.
  • December 25, 164, the Maccabees and the people of Jerusalem began an eight day celebration that included the rededication of the temple, the reestablishment of the Jewish sacrifices, prayer and singing with harps, lyres and cymbals.  This was the first Hanukkah.
  • Judas became the spiritual and governmental leader of Israel
  • The Maccabean army grew to 22,000 with a cavalry and an infantry trained in phalanx warfare
  • Judas moved outside the borders of Judah to deliver Jews in Samaria and on the east side of the Jordan.
  • Simon, Judas’ brother, led an expedition to the Plain of Sharon, the Jezreel Valley and GalileeLysias vs. Judas Maccabeaus

Judas Maccabeus Controls Judah

The Battle of

Lysias (65,000) vs Judas (10,000)



  • Antiochus IV Epiphanies dies.
  • The Hellenist in the Acra appealed again for help and Lysias returned with 55,000 and 8 war elephants.  One of the Maccabean sons, Eleazer was crushed killing an elephant and the Maccabees were defeated.  Judas fled to the temple walls in Jerusalem. Lysias liberated the acra. 
  • When Lysias found out Antioch was being attacked he offered Judas generous terms for peace and retreated.  The peace treaty included the Hellenistic decrees were abolished, freedom to worship, and amnesty for rebellion.
  • Lysias returned to Antioch and established Antiochus V as king of the Seleucid kingdom.
  • Llysias appointed Alcimus, a Hellenized Jew, as the new high priest but the Maccabees drove him out.

Antiochus IV Epiphanies Dies


  • Demetrius, a royal hostage of Rome, was released back to Syria.  He killed Lysias and Antiochus V.
  • Demetrius sends Alcimus back to Jerusalem with the escort of General Bacchides.
  • Judas’ forces were too weak to resist.
  • Alcimus executed 60 of the Hasidim leaders who had led the people in obedience to the law



  • Judas Maccabeus goes to Rome for help against the Seleucids.  Rome recognizes the Maccabean state as its own independent nation and signs a treaty but they never helped Judea fight.

Roman Treaty


  • Demetrius, the new king of the Seleucids, marches out to punish the Maccabeans for going to Rome for help.  Judas is trapped in the battle and after fighting hand to hand combat all day, the exhausted Judas Maccabeus is killed.
  • The Seleucids allowed the Jews to public mourning for his death. 
  • Judas’ brothers, Simon and Jonathan, buried him in Modein.
  • Jonathan Maccabeaus became the new leader of Judea.

Judas Maccabeus Dies


  • The Hellenistic Jews try to hand Jonathan over to the Seleucids.  After he escapes he returns to Jerusalem and kills 100’s of Hellenist, blaming them for the last ten years of war.



  • Jonathan is given the position of high priest by the Seleucid king.
  • Jonathan is made governor of the province and a general in the Seleucid army.

Jonathan: Priest, Governor, General


  • Jonathan is killed and Simon, the last of the five Maccabean brothers, becomes ruler in Judea.

Jonathan Maccabeus Dies


  • Judea becomes an independent nation with Simon Maccabeus as the high priest, the general and the king.
  • Simon expelles all the Seleucid troops stationed in Jerusalem including the ones in the Acra.
  • Simon rules eight years as the first Hasmonean. (“Hasmonean” is the name given to the priestly family of Mattathias or for the Maccabeans.)
  • The descendents of the Maccabees, called the Hasmoneans, will rule Judea until 67 BC when the land was annexed by the Romans which ended the last period of an independent Jewish state until 1948 AD.

Maccabeus: Priest,
King, General

Simon Establishes the Hasmonean Dynasty


  • Ptolemy invites Simon and his sons, Mattathias and Judas, to a banquet in Jericho at the castle of Dok. There Ptolemy slays all three of them.  (This is the last of the five sons of Mattathias who began the revolt 30 years before.)
  • John Hyrcanus /hur-ka-nes/, Simon’s son slays the man who was to assassinate him. 
  • John Hyrcanus takes the office of high priest and occupies Jerusalem
  • Antiochus VII devastates Judea and attacks Jerusalem.
  • John Hyrcanus drives the people unfit for war out of the city.  Many die of starvation. After a year John Hyrcanus negotiates for peace that agreed to give up their weapons, pay a tribute plus hostages and silver.

Ptolemy Slays Simon

John Hyrcanus


  • The Seleucids are in the midst of a struggle for the throne and John Hyrcanus regains Judea’s territory.
  • John Hyrcanus uses money from David’s sepulture to maintain foreign troops.



  • Rome rejects a treaty with John Hyrcanus because of their own internal trouble




  • John Hyrcanus is not concerned with Seleucid affairs in Syria.
  • Three parties are developing
  • The party of the scribes became known as the Pharisees or “prushim” meaning “separated”.  They held to the traditional values of the law and the Maccabees.
  • The party of the priests became known as the Sadducees.  They were the party of aristocracy, leaned towards Hellenism and accepted only the five books of Moses for matters of law.
  • A third group that developed later was the Essenes.  They lived away from the politics and kept busy with religious and spiritual activities.
  • Hyrcanus had supported the Pharisees but when they asked him to lay down his priesthood and only serve as king he left the Pharisees and the nation tended to drift toward Hellenism
  • John Hyrcanus conquered Idumea on Judah’s southern border, made the Jewish by law.

Scribes = Pharisees
(Maccabean Values)

Priests =
Sadducees (Hellenistic Values)


Idumea Conquered and
Made Jewish


  • John Hyrcanus dies.  He was known as a prophet, a priest and a king.
  • Hyrcanus’ wife was given the political power.
  • Hyrcanus’ son, Judas Aristobulus, became the priest.

John Hyrcanus Dies


  • Hyrcanus’ second son Alexander Jannaus becomes priest and king when Judas Aristobulus dies with no sons and Alexander Jannaus marries his wife. 
  • The Jewish high priest, Alexander Jannaus, conquered the Mediterranean coastal plain from Gaza to Mount Carmel.
  • Under Alexander Jannaus the Hasmonean kingdom stretched from Dan to Beersheba.

Alexander Jannaus


  • Alexander Jannaus took the social and political conflict between the Pharisees (traditional Maccabean values) and the Sadducees (aristorcratic Hellenized priests) to the level of a civil war.  At the Feast of Tabernacles the high priest is to pour water sacred water on the altar according the tradition of the Pharisees, but instead Alexander Jannaus poured it on his feet.  As Jannaus had hope the crowd who was holding palm branches and citrons became angry and began to throw the citron fruits at Jannaus.  In response Alexander Jannaus ordered that his troops attack the crowd.  6,000 were killed.

Feast of Tabernacles Massacre


  • A six year civil war followed that pitted King Alexander Jannaus and the Sadducees against the masses of the people and the Pharisees.
  • 50,000 Jews were killed by each other in those six years.

Civil War: Sadducees vs. Pharisees


  • Both sides were tired of the fighting.  Alexander Jannaus asked the Pharisees what he could do to stop the fighting.  The Pharisees replied, “Kill yourself.”
  • The Pharisees then went to the Syrian government for help.
  • The Syrians invade from Damascus.  Alexander Jannaus is defeated and flees into the mountains.
  • When the Jews see Alexander Jannaus, a descendent of the Maccabees, fleeing from the Syrians they switch to support him.
  • Alexander Jannaus recovers and returns to Jerusalem to avenge himself on the Pharisees.  Jannaus captures 800 Pharisees and crucifies them on crosses while he kills their families in front of them.

Alexander Jannaus Crucifies Pharisees


  • Alexander Jannaus dies.  His widow, Salome Alexandra, rules until 69
  • Alexander’s widow gives the Pharisees permission to put to death the Sadducees that advised Alexander Jannaus to execute the 800 Pharisees.
  • The Sadducees, including her son Aristobulus the Sadducee, approached her and asked for protection and she gave them several fortresses to use for protection. 
  • Aristobulus and the Sadducees entered the fortresses and waited for a chance to rebel.

Queen Alexandra

Revenge of the Pharisees

Sadducees Hide in Fortresses


  • Salome Alexandra died leaving the throne and the priesthood to her weak son, Hyrcanus II (Pharisee), in charge and her strong son, Aristobulus (Sadducee) hiding in the fortress.
  • Aristobulus (Sadducee) defeated Hyrcanus II (Pharisee) at Jericho.  Hyrcanus II fled to the fortress in Jerusalem.
  • Aristobulus gave Hyrcanus II his property and his life if he in return gave the throne and the priesthood to Aristobulus.  With this the Sadducees regained their power.
  • With this peace treaty the civil war that began in 124 BC with John Hyrcanus seem to come to an end but the Idumean governor, Antipater, did not want Aristobulus to rule.
  • Hyrcanus’ peace in Jerusalem didn’t last and he was forced to flee to Petra to the Arabian king.
  • The Idumean, Antipater, convinced the Arabian king to join him in attacking Aristobulus in Jerusalem and restoring Hyrcanus II to the throne.

Hasmonean Prince Aristobulus the Sadducee
Hasmonean Prince Hyrcanus, the Pharisee

Antipater, the Idumean


  • Pompey, the Roman general, is conquering in Asia Minor and sends the Roman General Scarus to Damascus.
  • Aristobulus and his brother Hyrcanus II both appear before the Roman general Scarus in Damascus with gifts, hoping to be appointed high priest.  Aristobulus was appointed and Antipater and the Arabians are forced to leave Jerusalem.

Rome appoints Aristobulus


  • Pompey arrives in Damascus in 65.  Aristobulus and Hycanus appear before him with the same request.  The Pharisees appear before Pompey also requesting that Rome do away with the Hasmonean rule of Judea.
  • Before deciding Pompey went on a campaign against the Nabateans with Aristobulus’ help.  Aristobulus abandoned the campaign and returned to Jerusalem.  Pompey followed Aristobulus to Jerusalem.  When Pompey arrived at the walls of Jerusalem Hyrcanus’ party was at war with Aristobulus’ party within the city of Jerusalem.  Hyrcanus’ party opened the western gates for Pompey to enter but Aristobulus’ party fled to the temple as a fortress.  During the three month siege of the temple by Pompey the priests continued to offer sacrifices and many perished by the altar.  After three months and the death of 12,000 Jews Pompey broke through to the temple mound.  Pompey entered the Holy of Holies just to take a look and was surprised that it was empty and held no image of the Jewish God.   The temple was cleansed and sacrifices resumed. 
  • Pompey then reinstated Hyrcanus as high priest.  This was Hyrcanus’ second time.
  • Pompey makes the land of Judah a province of Rome and ending Jewish independence until 1948.
  • Pompey traveled back to Rome.  He took Aristobulus and his family prisoners.  Aristobulus, his two daughters and his younger son marched in front of Pompey.  Many other Jews were forced to march in the procession to Rome.
  • Aristobulus’ older son, Alexander, escapes

Civil War in the City of Jerusalem

Pompey Takes Jerusalem

Hyrcanus Reinstated as
High Priest

Judah becomes a Roman Province



  • Alexander, Aristobulus’ son, drives out Hyrcanus and takes possession of the Jerusalem fortress.
  • Roman proconsul of Syria, Gabinius, attacks Jerusalem and restores Hyrcanus



  • Aristobulus escapes Roman prison and leads the Sadducees in revolt in Jerusalem.
  • Sadducees are defeated and Aristobulus has to flee across the Jordan
  • Roman proconsul of Syria, Gabinius, leaves for Egypt.  Antipater the Idumean assists him with food and in finding favor with the Egyptians


Antipater Assists Rome


  • Gabinius returns from Egypt to find Jerusalem in revolt under Alexander.
  • Antipater helps Gabinius defeat Alexander

Jerusalem in


  • M. Licinius Crassus (one of the first triumvirate of Julius Caesar, Pompey and Crassus) replaced Gabinius as proconsul at Syria.
  • Crassus robbed the temple in Jerusalem of two thousand talents of gold and eight thousand talents worth of objects to pay for his war with the Parthians.

Crassus Robs Temple


  • Crassus dies when the Parthian king pours liquid gold down his throat and decapitates him.
  • Cassius Longinus replaces Crassus.

Crassus Dies


  • Civil war breaks out between Julius Caesar and Pompey

Roman Civil War


  • Pompey is defeated and flees to Egypt

Pompey Flees


  • Antipater, the Idumean, assists Julius Caesar against Ptolemy
  • After Julius Caesar defeats Ptolemy Antipater and Hyrcanus are rewarded in Syria by Caesar.
  • Caesar makes Hyrcanus the Governor of the Jews
  • Caesar makes Antipater the procurator or manager of Caesar’s affairs in Judea, Samaria and Galilee
  • Caesar and Antipater become friends and the Jews are given special privileges.

Antipater Assists
Julius Caesar

Antipater is Rewarded


  • The Jews approach Caesar and ask for a new deal.  Caesar gives them the following:
  • An annual payment of tribute according to their religious law
  • The high priest was to receive the customary revenues from the people.
  • No military burden
  • Joppa was given to the high priest and Lydda was restored.
  • Hyrcanus received seats of honor for himself and his friends at the gladiator shows in Rome.
  • Hyrcanus had special privileges in approaching the Senate
  • All these privileges came because of Antipater’s diplomatic skills but the Jews still hated Antipater because he was an Idumean.
  • Antipater then appointed his two sons to positions of governor:
  • Phasael, Antipater’s oldest son, became the governor of Jerusalem
  • Herod, Antipater’s second son, became governor of Galilee

Jews Receive Favor from Julius Caesar

Antipater’s Sons:
Phasael and Herod


  • Herod, at the age of 25, takes the wild and dangerous land of Galilee that is filled with criminals and subdues it.  Herod immediately captured and killed Ezekias, a leading gangster.  Rome and Syria approved of Herod’s actions but Hyrcanus and the Jewish leaders became jealous and accused Herod of breaking the Jewish law.  Herod is ordered to appear before the Roman Proconsul Sextus Caesar in Damascus.  When Herod walks into the court he stuns his Jewish accusers with his appearance being dressed like a king in all purple and escorted by a body guard.  The Jews were intimated and Sextus Caesar loved it.  The proconsul gave orders to release Herod.



  • Julius Caesar is assassinated in a conspiracy of sixty senators durng a meeting.  Caesar was stabbed twenty-three times.
  • Cassius and Brutus flee after killing Caesar.  They tax Antipater’s land.  Herod raises his tax money first and Cassius promises to make him king of Judea after the war.

Julius Caesar Assassinated


  • Antipater is poisoned.  Herod kills the assassin.
  • Cassius and Brutus fight Octavius and Antony in the Roman Civil war
  • Hyrcanus revolts in Jerusalem but Herod puts it down.
  • Antony and Octavius defeat Cassius and Brutus
  • Antony appoints his friend Herod as ruler of Judea

Antipater Poisoned

Roman Civil War

Herod, King of Judea


  • Herod marries the granddaughter of Hyrcanus II, Mariamne, a royal princess from the line of the Maccabees.  This places Herod and his descendents in the royal line of the Hasmoneans.

Herod Marries Hasmonean Princess


  • Antony and Octavian split and start another Roman Civil war.
  • Herod supports his friend Antony.

Roman Civil War


  • Antony is defeated by Octavian and flees to Egypt

Antony Defeated


  • Octavian defeats Antony and Cleopatra VII Philopator
  • Antony and Cleopatra both die
  • The Roman Senate gives Octavian the official title of Augustus and he rules under the name of Caesar Augustus
  • Herod is ordered to appear before Caesar Augustus (Octavian) for having sided with Antony and against Octavian in the civil war.  Herod explains that he is loyal to his friends and that now Caesar Augustus can take advantage of Herod being his friend.
  • Caesar Augustus agrees that he needs loyal friends like that and sends Herod back to Judea to continue as king of Judea, Samaria and Galilee

Antony Dies

Octavian Called
Caesar Augustus

Herod, King of Judea, Samaria, Galilee



KEY POINTS (back to the top)

OTHER SITES (back to the top)

BOOKS from Galyn's Shelf: (back to the top)

QUESTIONS (back to the top)


Essay Tests:
Sect E, Ch 22 - Describe the Maccabean Revolt









  © 2005 Generation Word