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Galyn Wiemers Bible Teacher, Bible Teaching

 
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Lesson 33 of 50 - New Testament (part one of eight)
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Written Notes

NT Book Chronology

Romans

First Corinthians

Review Points & Questions

Supplementary Material & Books


Romans  

First Corinthians 1-6  

First Corinthians 7-11  

First Corinthians 12-14  

First Corinthians 15  
These Classes on .mp3
Romans
First Corinthians 1-6
First Corinthians 7-11
First Corinthians 12-14
First Corinthians 15

New Testament (part one): New Testament Review; Romans; First Corinthians

Chapter forty-five
The New Testament Books

 

Dates                     Book                                      Place of Writing                  Author

45                           James                                   Jerusalem                            James
49                           Galatians                              Antioch                                   Paul
50                           Matthew                                 Jerusalem                            Matthew
51                           1 Thessalonians                 Corinth                                   Paul
52                           2 Thessalonians                 Corinth                                   Paul
55                           1 Corinthians                       Ephesus                                Paul
56                           2 Corinthians                       Macedonia                            Paul
56                           Luke                                       ??                                           Luke
57                           Romans                               Corinth                                   Paul
60                           Ephesians                            Rome                                     Paul
61                           Philippians                           Rome                                     Paul
62                           Colossians                           Rome                                     Paul
62                           Philemon                              Rome                                     Paul
62                           1 Peter                                   Rome                                     Peter
62                           1 Timothy                              Macedonia                            Paul
64                           Titus                                       Corinth                                   Paul
64                           2 Peter                                   Rome                                     Peter
65                           Mark                                       Rome                                     Mark
65                           Jude                                       ?                                              Jude
67                           2 Timothy                              Rome                                     Paul
68                           Hebrews                              Maybe Corinth or Rome     ?? (Barnabus)
85                           John                                       Ephesus                                 John
85(?)                      1, 2, 3 John                           Ephesus                                 John
96                           Revelation                             Patmos (Ephesus)             John

Paul’s Thirteen Letters (48-67 AD)

Written after First Journey 

  • Galatians

Written on his Second Journey

  • 1 Thessalonians
  • 2 Thessalonians

Written on his Third Journey

  • 1 Corinthians
  • 2 Corinthians
  • Romans

Written during Imprisonment recorded in Acts

  • Ephesians
  • Philippians
  • Colossians
  • Philemon

Written Before Final Arrest

  • 1 Timothy
  • Titus

Written During Final Imprisonment

  • 2 Timothy

The Eight General Epistles (45-85 AD)

  • Hebrews
  • James
  • First and Second Peter
  • First, Second and Third John
  • Jude

The One Prophetic Epistle (96 AD)

  • Revelation

 

 

ROMANS

57 AD

“In the gospel a righteousness from God is revealed, a righteousness that is by faith.”  1:17

Author: Paul
Written From: Corinth
Sent To: Church in Rome

Purpose: Paul presents his gospel and the theology of his gospel to the well established and doctrinally correct church at Rome.  Paul planned to follow the letter with a visit, be welcomed into the church and then sent by the church into Spain (15:23-29)

Theme: The righteousness provided to us by God through Jesus Christ

Basic Outline:

  • 1:1 -8:39 – Doctrinal
  • 9:1-11:36 – Israel’s National Election, Rejection and Restoration
  • 12:1-16:27 – The Christian Life: Service and Freedom

Memorable Verses: (Also see The Roman Road chart below)

  • “I am not ashamed of the gospel.” 1:16
  • “Since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities . . . have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse.” 1:20
  • “A man is a Jew if he is one inwardly” 2:29
  • “We maintain that a man is justified by faith apart from observing the law.” 3:28
  • “The promise comes by faith; so that it may be by grace and may be guaranteed to all” 4:16
  • “We also rejoice in our sufferings, because we know that suffering produces perseverance; perseverance, character, and character, hope.” 5:3
  • “We died to sin; how can we live in it any longer?” 6:2
  • “What a wretched man I am!  Who will rescue me from this body of death?” 7:24
  • “You, however, are controlled not by the sinful nature but by the Spirit, if the Spirit of God lives in you.” 8:9
  • “I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us.”  8:18
  • “The creation waits in eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed” 8:19
  • “In all these things we are more than conquerors through him who loved us.” 8:37
  • “I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery . . . so that you may not be conceited:  Israel has experienced a hardening in part until the full number of the Gentiles has come in.” 11:25
  • “Offer your bodies as living sacrifices, holy and pleasing to God – this is your spiritual act of worship.  Do not conform any longer to the pattern of this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind.”  12:1,2
  • “We each have different gifts according to the grace given us.” 12:6
  • “Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good. “  12:21
  • “Everyone must submit himself to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established.” 13:1
  • “Let no debt remain outstanding, except the continuing debt t love one another, for he who loves his fellowman has fulfilled the law.” 13:8
  • “Accept him whose faith is weak, without passing judgment on disputable matters.” 14:1
  • “Each of us will give an account of himself to God.” 14:12

Greek Words:

  • dunamiV – dunamis - power, 1:4,16, 20, 8:38; 9:17; 15:13;15:19
  • suneid hsiV – suneidesis -conscience, 2:15; 9:1; 13:5
  • dikaiosunh – dikaiosune - righteousness, 1:17; 3:5, 21; 4:3; 5:17; 6:13; 8:10; 9:28; 10:3 14:17; total 38x
  • metamorfuomai - metamorphuomai - change, transfigure, transform 12:2

Healthy Doctrine:

  • God’s Wrath and Divine Judgment (1:8-2:16)
  • Sin Nature of Man (3:9-20) – total depravity
  • Justification by Faith (3:21-4:25)
  • Eternal Security (5:1-11; 8:28-39)
  • Imputation (5:12-14, 19; 4:25; 5:16-21)
  • Sanctification (6:13; 12:1)
  • Reconciliation

Chapter one explains that the knowledge of the existence of a creator is clear to every man.  Atheists say there is no God but in these verses (1:19-21) God says there are no atheists.  There are only “men who suppress the truth by their wickedness” (1:18) because “God has made it plain to them” (1:19) “so that men are without excuse” in rejecting the existence of God. (1:20).

Chapter two discusses the moral conviction that every man experiences because God’s requirements “are written on their hearts “ (2:15).  Men who recognize the Creator and his moral requirements will either suppress that knowledge or pursue God by “doing good” and in their lives “seek glory, honor and immortality” (2:7).  To these “he will give eternal life” by leading them to Jesus.  They do not earn eternal life by doing good and seeking glory, honor and immortality, but they like Cornelius (Acts 10:4-6), will find God because they seek God (Jer. 29:13; Dt. 4:29; Isaiah 55:6; 2 Chr. 15:2).

Chapter three describes total depravity of every man, both the Jew and the Gentile are under the judgment of God.  No man can achieve right standing with God by his own efforts in meeting God’s Jewish Laws or the laws written on the hearts of the Gentiles.  But, a right standing with God that is not based on man’s work is revealed (3:21).  In fact, it was written in the Law and the Prophets (the Old Testament) (3:212).  This righteousness comes because of what Jesus Christ did from men.  Each man has access to this right standing with God through faith.

In chapter four Paul uses Abraham as an Old Testament example of someone who obtained right standing with God by trusting in God’s word, or having faith in his promises.  David is also used as an example of this kind of faith which resulted in righteousness (4:6)

Chapter five begins to explain our life of a man after he has been justified by faith and is in right standing with God.  That man has peace with God (5:1) and must realize that God is willing to continue to do gracious things for this man especially now that he is in right standing with God and is legally justified or declared innocent in the courts of heaven (5:9).  Beginning in 5:12 Paul explains imputation.  Mankind all became guilty when one man Adam sinned, but imputation can work in the positive sense also because “the result of one act of righteousness was justification that brings life for all men” (5:18)

In chapter six Paul begins to describe our obligation now to live in righteousness since we have been made righteous.  Since we are eternally positionally righteous we need to pursue temporal righteousness today.  We have been raised like Christ so “we too may live a new life” (6:4). 

Chapter seven uses a principle from the Law of Moses to demonstrate that we have been set free from the Law to live under the power of grace.  Yet, even in the state of Grace we carry with us “this body of death” (7:24), the sin nature.   Paul describes his frustration with his “desire to do what is good,” (7:18) but says, “I cannot carry it out.  For what I do is not the good I want to do; no, the evil I do not want to do – this I keep on doing” (7:18, 19).  Paul ends this chapter rejoicing and looking toward that day in eternity when God rescues him from the sin nature completely (7:24, 25)

Chapter eight then explains that until that time of complete sanctification or glorification we live on the earth with the Holy Spirit empowering us and enabling us to walk as sons of God.  Not only are we waiting to be delivered from this present age but “even creation waits in eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed” (8:20).  Our hope is in the Spirit of God who “helps us in our weakness” (8:26).  “We know that in all things God works for the good of those who love him” and nothing in earth, in time or in us can separate us from God and the plan he began in our lives (8:28).  We may seem like “sheep to be slaughtered” (8:36) at times with the sin nature in side of us and the forces of evil around us, but “in all these things we are more than conquerors through him who loved us.” (8:37)

At this point Paul has fully discussed and explained the gospel and the full salvation experience from beginning to end.  This portion of the book is finished and Paul switches topics.  Many in the church in Rome were Jewish converts who along with the Gentiles were excited about the future prospects of the gospel they had come to believe and that Paul had just described for them.  But, weren’t the promises given to Israel just as glorious?  And, had not Israel failed to obtain these wonder prospects for their future?  If that were true, could not the same fate fall to those who had trusted in the gospel?  In response to these nagging questions Paul spends the next three chapters chapter 9, 10 and 11) explaining Israel’s promises, Israel’s failure, and Israel’s ultimate fulfillment of God’s plan.

In chapter twelve, Paul returns to the believer and their life as a Christian.  As is the case in Paul’s other epistles, namely Ephesians and Colossians, the letter begins with doctrinal teaching but ends with directions and guidelines for living.  Romans chapters 12-15 focus on the Christian life.  These are the things that are discussed:

  • Spiritual act of worship is how you live your life (12:1)
  • Renew you mind to God’s word and no longer conform to the world (12:2)
  • Each believer has a spiritual gift and must use it (12:3-8)
  • Love must be sincere (12:9).  It will look like what is described in verses 12:9-21
  • Respect government and rulers (13:1-7)
  • Love and how it is demonstrated to society in general (13:8-14)
  • Relations with a younger or less mature believer (14:1-15:13)

Paul begins to close his letter in 15:14 where he discusses his ministry to the gentiles.  He tells the Romans that he plans to visit the church in Rome, take an offering and use the money to reach Spain.

Chapter sixteen is basically a list of references for the Roman church to use to check Paul’s credentials and character.  Since Paul has never visited Rome before he has used this letter to explain his gospel and the theology of his gospel.  In these closing verses he greets those that he has met at other times in his travels through out the Roman Empire.  Surely, many of these people had heard Paul preach in other synagogues and churches to the East.


The Roman Road: The Way of Salvation

Romans 5:12

Death came to all men

“Sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, and in this way death came to all men, because all sinned”

Romans 3:23

All men have sinned

“There is no difference, for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God.”

Romans 3:20

No one will be declared righteous by obedience

“Therefore, no one will be declared righteous in his sight by observing the law.”

Romans 5:8

Christ died for us

“God demonstrates his own love for us in this: while we were still sinners, Christ died for us.”

Romans 4:25

Christ died for our sins;
Christ rose because we were justified

“He was delivered over to death for our sins and was raised to life for our justification.”

Romans 6:23

Wages of sin is death;
God’s gift is eternal life

“For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.”

Romans 3:21,22

Righteousness from God
through faith

“Now a righteousness from God, apart from law, has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify.”

Romans 1:16, 17

Gospel is the power of God for everyone who believes

“I am not ashamed of the gospel, because it is the power of God, for the salvation of everyone who believes . . .
For in the gospel a righteousness from God is revealed, a righteousness that is by faith from first to last.”

Romans 10:9

Confess Jesus and be saved

“The word of faith we are proclaiming: That if you confess with your mouth, ‘Jesus is Lord,’ and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be save.”

Romans 6:14

Sin shall not be your master

“Sin shall not be your master, because you are not under law, but under grace.”

Romans 8:28-32

All things work together for good of those who love God

“We know that in all things God works for the good of those who love him . . . if God is for us, who can be against us?  He who did not spare his own Son, but gave him up for us all – how will he not also, along with him, graciously give us all things?



FIRST CORINTHIANS

55 AD

“Brothers, I want to remind you of the gospel I preached to you, which you received and
on which you have taken your stand.” 
15:1

Author: Paul
Written From: Ephesus
Sent To: Church in Corinth

Purpose: Correct behavior by correcting doctrine

Theme: The Christian’s new life is to be applied to everyday life

Basic Outline:

  • Chapters 1-6, Paul attempts to correct issues in the Corinthian church made known to him by members of Chole’s household who had crossed the Aegean Sea to speak with Paul.  The problems included:
    • Divisions, factions, jealousy and quarrelling in the local Corinthian church result from a misunderstanding of the message of the cross and the ministry of the Holy Spirit
    • Immorality
    • Legal Battles
  • Chapters 7-16, Paul addresses questions brought by an official delegation that presented him a letter with concerns that arose from Paul’s previous letter to the Corinthians.  These each begin with peri de in the Greek which translates “now concerning” and include:
    • 7:1, immorality and marriage
    • 7:25, celibacy and marriage
    • 8:1, food sacrificed to idols.  Chapter 8-10 involves Christian liberty and responsibility.  This leads into Paul discussing his apostleship and the Lord’s Supper
    • 12:1, spiritual gifts
    • 15:1 (no peri de), the gospel and the doctrine of resurrection
    • 16:1, collection of money for the Jerusalem saints
    • 16:12, Paul’s fellow teacher, Apollos

Memorable Verses:

  • “To the church of God in Corinth, to those sanctified in Christ Jesus and called to be holy.” 1:2
  • “For the message of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God.” 1:18
  • “None of the rulers of this age understood it, for if they had, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.” 2:8
  • “We have not received the spirit of the world but the Spirit who is from God, that we may understand what God has freely given us.” 2:12
  • “Brothers, I could not address you as spiritual but as worldly – mere infants in Christ.” 3:1
  • “If a man builds on this foundation using gold, silver, costly stones, wood, hay or straw, his work will be shown for what it is.” 3:11, 12
  • “Don’t you know that you yourselves are God’s temple and that God’s Sprit lives in you? 3:16
  • “The kingdom of God is not a matter of talk but of power.” 4:20
  • “Hand this man over to Satan, so that the sinful nature may be destroyed and his spirit saved on the day of the Lord.” 5:5
  • “The very fact that you have lawsuits among you means you have been completely defeated already.” 6:7
  • “Each one should retain the place in life that the Lord assigned to him and to which God has called him.” 7:17
  • “Circumcision is nothing and uncircumcision is nothing.  Keeping God’s commands is what counts.” 7:19
  • “Be careful, however, that the exercise of your freedom does not become a stumbling block to the weak.” 8:9
  • “Though I am free and belong to no man, I make myself a slave to everyone, to win as many as possible.” 9:19
  • “I do not run like a man running aimlessly; I do not fight like a man beating the air.” 9:26
  • “These things happened to them as examples and were written down as warnings for us, on whom the fulfillment of the ages has come.” 10:11
  • “No temptation has seized you except what is common to man.” 10:13
  • “In the following directives I have no praise for you, for your meetings do more harm than good.” 11:17
  • “Whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of sinning against the body and blood of the Lord.” 11:27
  • “Now to each one the manifestation of the Spirit is given for the common good.” 12:7
  • “Now you are the body of Christ, and each one of you is a part of it.” 12:27
  • “Love never fails.” 13:8
  • “Follow the way of love and eagerly desire spiritual gifts.” 14:1
  • “The spirits of the prophets are subject to the control of prophets.  For God is not a God of disorder but of peace.” 14:32, 33
  • “If Christ has not been raised, your faith is futile, your are still in your sins.” 15:17
  • “The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. But thanks be to God!  He gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.” 15:56, 57
  • “If anyone does not love the Lord – a curse be on him.  Come, O Lord.” 16:22

Greek Words:

  • ’anastasis – ’anastasis - resurrection, literally, resurrection out from among the dead ones 15:12,13,21, 42
  • pneuma – pnuma- spirit, 2:4, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14; 3:16; 4:21; 5:3-5; 6:11, 17, 19; 7:34; 12; 3, 4, 7; 14:2, 12, 14, 32; 15:45; 16:18; plus more
  • pneumatikoV – pneumatikos – spiritual, 2:13, 15; 3:1; 9:11; 10:3, 4; 12:1; 14:1, 37;15:44, 46.
  • caris – charis - grace or favor, 1:3, 4; 3:10; 10:30; 15:10;, 57; 16:3, 23
  • carisma – charisma – gift, 1:7; 7:7; 12:4; 12:9, 28, 30, 31
  • ’exousia – exousia - authority, jurisdiction, right, liberty, privilege.  Also, means power, strength. 7:37; 8:9; 9:4, 5, 6, 12, 18; 11:10; 15:24

Healthy Doctrine:

  • Sanctified
  • Unity
  • Authority
  • Marriage
  • Family
  • Now but not yet, the interval
  • Freedom
  • Responsibility
  • The Body, The Church
  • The Cross
  • Lord’s Supper
  • Spiritual Gifts
  • Holy Spirit
  • Resurrection

Corinth was a large metropolis with a population of about 700,000 or which as many as 450,000 were slaves of some sort.  Corinth was located on a narrow isthmus (a piece of land that connects two larger land masses) that had two major seaports: Corinthian Gulf and Saronic Gulf.  They were extremely prosperous and lived in luxury surrounded by pagan temples and known for their sinful live style through out the Mediterranean world. 

The Corinthian church had began when a Jewish synagogue split (Acts 18) but was now made up of a mixture of Jews and many Gentiles who were rich and poor from both the low class and nobility.

In chapter one a group of Corinthians from the household of Chloe have come over to Ephesus to warn Paul of the division and factions that have formed in the Corinthian church.  Paul begins to explain that this is the result of not understanding basic doctrine, namely, the message of the cross.

In chapter two Paul explains the problem in the Corinthian church is that many are still pursuing worldly wisdom.  There is a greater wisdom that is revealed by the Spirit of God and of which Paul is a minister.

In chapter three Paul continues to explain the reason for the Corinthian’s problem with division.  They are pursuing men not Christ.  Paul then warns the various ministers preaching in the church telling them to be careful how they build the church.  If they build it with human wisdom and motivation (wood, hay or straw) their work will be consumed and worthless in eternity.  But, if they build it with God’s wisdom by the Spirit (gold, silver, costly stones) their work will become an eternal reward.

In chapter four Paul discusses the true apostle or servant of God.  The false ministers considered themselves kings and taught the people to enjoy the present glorious age. Paul, on the other hand, was considered by the world (and some of the Corinthians) to be lower than a dishonored servant meant only to serve in the arena for the entertainment of the world in this corrupt age.

In chapters five and six Paul addresses concerns that were brought to his attention by the group from Chloe’s household.  These issues include a man living with his father’s wife, believers going to the court room of the world to resolve their issues, sexual immorality and pagan temple worship.

In chapter seven Paul begins to address an official letter from the church of Corinth that had taken issue with some things Paul had taught.  The key matter here seems to be a misunderstanding of what is spiritual and how it applies to our place in time (eschatology).  The first issue involves women who are “too spiritual” to have sexual relations with their husbands which leads into a discussion about marriage,
 
In chapter eight Paul addresses the second issue: food sacrificed to idols in the pagan temples.  It is wrong to be in the temple of an idol but if the meat from a temple shows up in the market place there is no sin in buying and eating the meat.  The Christian is free to eat the meat.  Some believers less advanced in their understanding were still concerned about this and considered it a sin to eat the meat.  Which led Paul to establish the principle that Christian love and responsibility come before the individual Christian’s freedom.

In chapter nine Paul uses himself and his apostleship as an example of freedom and rights that are restrained or even denied for the great benefit of others.  Paul uses several examples of rights and privileges that he has as an apostle: the right to be provided with food and drink, the right to take a wife with him who would also have the right to be provided with food and drink, financial support from those (like the Corinthians) who benefited from Paul’s ministry and to make a living preaching the gospel.  Paul reminds the Corinthians that he has not used any of these rights because he doesn’t want his freedom to interfere with his responsibility to minister to people.

Chapter ten begins a discussion dealing with a misunderstanding of the power of the Lord’s Supper.  It was a remembrance meal not a magical meal.  The Lord’s Supper did not nullify the fact that the believer still has to walk in obedience or face God’s judgment.  Several examples from the Old  Testament are given.

In chapter eleven Paul explains some proper practices for worship including women, men, head coverings, long hair and again returns to the Lord ’s Supper.  Once again divisions in the church are mentioned.  This time the division is between the social classes within the church

In chapter twelve through fourteen Paul’s responses to another issue from the Corinthian’s letter to Paul concerning spiritual manifestations or gifts.  Paul explains that everyone has manifestations from the Spirit of God in their lives but these manifestations are to serve the body of Christ.  In chapter thirteen Paul explains these gifts must be done not just by the Spirit of God but also in the character of God which is love.  In chapter fourteen Paul describes the proper use of tongues and prophecy.  The chapter ends with Paul explaining how a church service should look.

In chapter fifteen Paul defends the reality and the doctrine of the resurrection of Jesus Christ.  Because of their corrupt eschatological doctrine, the Corinthians see no need or logic for the resurrection of believers.  Paul explains the resurrection is absolutely essential for the gospel message and says if you do not have a resurrection you do not have the gospel.  If you do not have the gospel then you are still in a state of sin which results in eternal damnation.  The good news is Jesus had been raised, death will be defeated and it is us who have the victory through Jesus Christ.

Paul closes down the letter in chapter sixteen but addresses two more issues: a collection of money for the struggling believers in Jerusalem and Paul’s fellow laborer in the ministry, Apollos.

 

KEY POINTS (back to the top)

OTHER SITES (back to the top)

BOOKS from Galyn's Shelf: (back to the top)


QUESTIONS (back to the top)



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 
 
 
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