Lesson 29 of 50 - Church History (part seven of eight)
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Church History 1100-1300,
Crusades, Waldo, Scholasticism, Aquinas, Mystics
Church History 1300-1517,
Mysticsim, Wyclif, Avignon,
These Classes on .mp3:
Church History 1100-1300,
Crusades, Waldo, Scholasticism, Aquinas, Mystics
Church History 1300-1517,
Mysticism, Wyclif, Avignon, Hus, Inquisition
Church History (part seven): The Reformation
1324-1384 John Wyclif
- The Morning Star of the Reformation
- He was of Saxon blood and studied at Oxford.
- He several appointments including one from the king
- In 1366 he was one of the king’s chaplains
- In 1374 Wyclif went for the king to negotiate peace with France and to meet with the pope’s agents on filling of ecclesiastical appointments in England.
- ON his return to England he began to speak of religious reform.
- He preached in Oxford and London against the pope’s secular sovereignty.
- IN one of his tracts he called the bishop of Rome “the anti-Christ, the proud, worldly priest of Rome, and the most cursed of clippers and cut-purses.”
- Wyclif said that the pope “has no more power in binding and loosing than any priest.”
- In 1378 he was tried for heresy
- He then began to write in English the Scriptures
- He organized traveling preachers to take his message
- He rejected transubstantiation, priestly absolution in the confessional and indulgences.
- His followers were called ‘Lollards’ and were arrested
- He suffered a stroke in 1382 that left him partially paralyzed
- While saying mass in his church he was struck again with paralysis and died two days later on Dec. 29, 1384.
- Wyclif was said to have lit a fire that would never go out.
1305-1378 Popes at Avignon
- The increase in the number of sects, nationalism, and the wider spread of money began the decline of the papacy
- England and France were at odds with the pope. The clash centered not on lands as in the past but on the accumulation of money.
- The church had to resort to demanding tithes from the churches or risk excommunication
- In France King Philip the Fair levied taxes on the French clergy of one-half their annual income.
- In 1296 Pope Boniface threatened excommunication
- Philip then forbid the exportation of gold to Rome
- Pope Boniface countered by stating the most far-reaching claims ever made by medieval papacy. He said that Christ, being both a king and a priest, had committed to Peter not one key but two, and not one sword but two – the temporal as well as the spiritual. Peter had renounced for himself the actual use of the temporal sword, but had delegated it to kings to be employed under papal direction.
- 1303 some of Philip’s men captured the pope in his summer residence near Rome and tortured him until he died.
- The papacy was then transferred from Rome to Avignon a little town in Southern France. This city as to be the papal residence from 1305 until 1378.
- This was known as the Babylonian captivity
1378 Great Schism of Papacy
- Other countries were rejecting the papacy as a French institution.
- Pope Gregory XI went back to Rome but his cardinals refused to go with him and elected another pope in Avignon, Clement VII
- Gregory XI was succeeded by Urban VI in Rome who then created a new college of cardinals.
- There were now two popes and two sets of cardinals.
- The conflict continued until both sets of cardinals were so disgusted that they met together with out either pope in 1409, calling their two popes “Benefictus” and ”Errorius” and deposed them both.
- They elected a new pope
1380 Wyclif’s English Translation of the NT
1414-1418 Constance Council
- 17th Church Council
- Heal Papal schism
- Burn Hus
1415 John Hus Burnt at stake
- He began preaching to the people of Bohemia in their own language
- He criticized Catholicism at first on a moral basis.
- He upbraided the luxury and license of the bishops and pope and drew a graphic picture of Christ riding on a donkey and the pope on a stallion being kissed on his feet.
- Hus movement restored the cup to the laity and not just to the priest
- Students at the University of Prague burned the papal bull of indulgence and were executed. Hus protested and was sent into retirement and wrote “On the Church”
- At the Council of Constance the council proposed to examine Hus.
- Hus welcomed the suggestion and was guaranteed a safe journey there and back.
- Upon arrival Hus was shocked by the blatant immorality of the priests.
- Hus was imprisoned
- Hus was accused of teaching the doctrines that he did not teach.
- He was burned by the council and said while burning, “O Christ, thou son of the living God, have mercy upon me. O thou, who wast born of the virgin Mary. . .”
- Even the dirt around the stake was dug up and removed so there would be no relics.
1431-1449 Basel Council
- 18th Church Council
- Reform the Church
1453 Turks Capture Constantinople
- After years of standing against Muslim pressure the Christian city of Constantinople fell to the Turks on May 29, 1453
- This ended the last stand of the former Roman Empire in the form of the Byzantine Empire and gave way to the Ottoman Empire
- This date is seen as the end of the Middle Ages.
- The Greek scholars of the Byzantine Empire migrated into Europe which began the Renaissance
- The Renaissance began a revival of learning based on classical culture of ancient Greece and Rome preserved in the Greek language of the Byzantine Empire that entered Italy with Muslim invasion of the eastern church and the ultimate fall of Constantinople in 1453
- Michelangelo, Erasmus, Raphel
1456 Johan Gutenberg
- Printing press invented
- Prints first Bible
1478 Spanish Inquisition
- In an attempt to rid the country of Spain of all heresy against the Catholic church.
- Spain sacrificed Jews, Moors (Muslims living in Spain), and Protestants.
- No church organization has ever been more unrestricted than the Spanish Inquisition.
- It was in agreement with the papal Inquisition established by Innocent III in its aim to eradicate heresy. But it was under the direction of a tribunal appointed by the Spainish king and answerable to him. They were completely independent of the bishops.
- The first sitting of the tribunal in 1481 result in six men and woman being cremated alive.
- It began with the Edict of Grace which gave heretics a period of 30-40 days to turn themselves in.
- The priest were then placed under a vow to reveal these names.
- Then 750 of them in 1486 were to march through the streets with candles to the church where they were told 1/5 of their property would be taken and they could never hold public office.
- By 1491, 298 people had been burned and 79 condemned to perpetual imprisonment.
- 1490-1500, 75 were burnt alive and 26 dead were exhumed and cast into the flames.
- In 1500 the entire population of a city was banished by inquisitor-general Deza.
- The crimes of unorthodox faith could be refusal to eat pork on a single occasion, visiting a house where Moorish notions were taught, saying that the Virgin herself and not her image effected cures
- People were tortured into confession and to get a conviction of someone else.
- The water-cure: the victim was tightly bound and stretched upon a rack with the body on an incline and the head tilted back. The jaws were opened and a linen cloth stuck down the victim’s throat. Water from a quart jar trickle through it into his body until they held 7-8 jars. Weights were attached to the feet and the body would be raised and lowered to increase the pain.
- Whipping, Galley labor
- By 1488 5,000 were in perpetual imprisonment.
- The last case of an execution by the Spanish Inquisition was a schoolteacher on July 26, 1826. He was accused of being a deist and substituting the words “Praise be to God. For “Ave Maria purissima.” He died on the gibbet (gallows or forked stick) repeating the words, “I die reconciled to God and to man.”
1512-1517 Fifth Lateran Council (Council of Rome V)
- Another effort to reform the church
- Included five decrees:
- Pawn shops allowed to help the poor
- Permission was required to print books
- Declared war on the Turks and ordered three years of tithes on all benefices, or on all churches and church ministers
1500-1600 Protestant Reformation
1483-1546 Martin Luther
- As a 13 year old student Luther was trained in grammar, rhetoric and logic
- At 17 Luther entered the University and received a Masters degree at 21 in 1505
- Luther then enrolled in law school but switched to philosophy but did not see the truth he was looking for.
- That same year, 1505, Luther vowed to become a monk when he was caught in the middle of a terrifying thunderstorm. He cried out for help to Saint Anna saying, “Help! Saint Anna, I will become a monk!”
- Luther joined an Augustinian monastery two weeks later.
- 1507 Luther was ordained as a priest
- 1508, age25, he taught theology at the newly opened University of Wittenberg
- In 1510 Luther was sent to Rome concerning the affairs of his Augustinian monastery and saw first hand the immorality, corruption and extreme luxury of the Roman church. He visited the famous churches, viewed the relics and observed priests saying three or four masses in the time it took Luther to present one back home
- In 1511 at the University of Wittenberg Luther became a professor of Bible. He studied the Bible in its original languages and lectured on the books of the Bible:
- 1513-1515 he taught the book of Psalms
- 1515-1517 he taught the book of Romans, Galatians and Hebrews
- During this time Martin Luther came to an understanding of salvation by faith from Romans 1:17
- At this point Luther began to hold to the three great points of his faith:
- sola fide – “by faith alone” and refers to justification and personal salvation only by faith in Jesus Christ
- sola scriptura – “by scripture alone” and means scripture is the only inspired word of God and the only source of authority for establishing Christian doctrine.
- sola sacerdos – “by priest alone” and refers to the priesthood of all believers in the One High Priest Jesus which is in contrast to a human priest on earth that stands between the believer and God
- In 1517, Johann Tetzel, a Dominican friar, came to the Wittenberg area to begin the sale of indulgences (the removal of sin granted by the church to individual believers who purchased the indulgence and were given a paper document after the purchase). Tetzel’s motto was, “As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs” and taught that repentance was not necessary since the indulgence itself provided forgiveness. Pope Leo X needed the money for the building of St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome.
- On October 31, 1517 Luther protested the sale of indulgences along with several other issues he had with the Roman church by offering a challenge to anyone who wanted to debate him on any of his 95 points of contention. He nailed the challenge, or the Ninety-five Theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg.
- The Castle Church in Wittenberg in 1509 had over 5,000 church relics supposedly including bones, teeth and hair of saints, a piece of the burning bush, soot from the fiery furnace, a piece of Jesus’ crib, even the thumb of Jesus’ grandmother, Anne, plus the standard relics such as a pieces of the cross and a hair from Jesus’ beard. By 1520 the number of relics had grown to over 19,000 that if viewed by a believer could reduce a believer’s time in purgatory by 1.9 million days or about 5,209 years.
1517 Martin Luther and 95 Theses
- Below is a copy of the letter that Martin Luther nailed on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany on October 31, 1517 offering an opportunity to discuss the stated issues:
The Ninety-Five Theses of Martin Luther, 1517
Out of love for the truth and from desire to elucidate it, the Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and Sacred Theology, and ordinary lecturer therein at Wittenberg, intends to defend the following statements and to dispute on them in that place. Therefore he asks that those who cannot be present and dispute with him orally shall do so in their absence by letter. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, Amen.
- When our Lord and Master Jesus Christ said, ``Repent'' (Mt 4:17), he willed the entire life of believers to be one of repentance.
- This word cannot be understood as referring to the sacrament of penance, that is, confession and satisfaction, as administered by the clergy.
- Yet it does not mean solely inner repentance; such inner repentance is worthless unless it produces various outward mortification of the flesh.
- The penalty of sin remains as long as the hatred of self (that is, true inner repentance), namely till our entrance into the kingdom of heaven.
- The pope neither desires nor is able to remit any penalties except those imposed by his own authority or that of the canons.
- The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring and showing that it has been remitted by God; or, to be sure, by remitting guilt in cases reserved to his judgment. If his right to grant remission in these cases were disregarded, the guilt would certainly remain unforgiven.
- God remits guilt to no one unless at the same time he humbles him in all things and makes him submissive to the vicar, the priest.
- The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to the canons themselves, nothing should be imposed on the dying.
- Therefore the Holy Spirit through the pope is kind to us insofar as the pope in his decrees always makes exception of the article of death and of necessity.
- Those priests act ignorantly and wickedly who, in the case of the dying, reserve canonical penalties for purgatory.
- Those tares of changing the canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory were evidently sown while the bishops slept (Mt 13:25).
- In former times canonical penalties were imposed, not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition.
- The dying are freed by death from all penalties, are already dead as far as the canon laws are concerned, and have a right to be released from them.
- Imperfect piety or love on the part of the dying person necessarily brings with it great fear; and the smaller the love, the greater the fear.
- This fear or horror is sufficient in itself, to say nothing of other things, to constitute the penalty of purgatory, since it is very near to the horror of despair.
- Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ the same as despair, fear, and assurance of salvation.
- It seems as though for the souls in purgatory fear should necessarily decrease and love increase.
- Furthermore, it does not seem proved, either by reason or by Scripture, that souls in purgatory are outside the state of merit, that is, unable to grow in love.
- Nor does it seem proved that souls in purgatory, at least not all of them, are certain and assured of their own salvation, even if we ourselves may be entirely certain of it.
- Therefore the pope, when he uses the words ``plenary remission of all penalties,'' does not actually mean ``all penalties,'' but only those imposed by himself.
- Thus those indulgence preachers are in error who say that a man is absolved from every penalty and saved by papal indulgences.
- As a matter of fact, the pope remits to souls in purgatory no penalty which, according to canon law, they should have paid in this life.
- If remission of all penalties whatsoever could be granted to anyone at all, certainly it would be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to very few.
- For this reason most people are necessarily deceived by that indiscriminate and high-sounding promise of release from penalty.
- That power which the pope has in general over purgatory corresponds to the power which any bishop or curate has in a particular way in his own diocese and parish.
- The pope does very well when he grants remission to souls in purgatory, not by the power of the keys, which he does not have, but by way of intercession for them.
- They preach only human doctrines who say that as soon as the money clinks into the money chest, the soul flies out of purgatory.
- It is certain that when money clinks in the money chest, greed and avarice can be increased; but when the church intercedes, the result is in the hands of God alone.
- Who knows whether all souls in purgatory wish to be redeemed, since we have exceptions in St. Severinus and St. Paschal, as related in a legend.
- No one is sure of the integrity of his own contrition, much less of having received plenary remission.
- The man who actually buys indulgences is as rare as he who is really penitent; indeed, he is exceedingly rare.
- Those who believe that they can be certain of their salvation because they have indulgence letters will be eternally damned, together with their teachers.
- Men must especially be on guard against those who say that the pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to him.
- For the graces of indulgences are concerned only with the penalties of sacramental satisfaction established by man.
- They who teach that contrition is not necessary on the part of those who intend to buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessional privileges preach unchristian doctrine.
- Any truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without indulgence letters.
- Any true Christian, whether living or dead, participates in all the blessings of Christ and the church; and this is granted him by God, even without indulgence letters.
- Nevertheless, papal remission and blessing are by no means to be disregarded, for they are, as I have said (Thesis 6), the proclamation of the divine remission.
- It is very difficult, even for the most learned theologians, at one and the same time to commend to the people the bounty of indulgences and the need of true contrition.
- A Christian who is truly contrite seeks and loves to pay penalties for his sins; the bounty of indulgences, however, relaxes penalties and causes men to hate them -- at least it furnishes occasion for hating them.
- Papal indulgences must be preached with caution, lest people erroneously think that they are preferable to other good works of love.
- Christians are to be taught that the pope does not intend that the buying of indulgences should in any way be compared with works of mercy.
- Christians are to be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better deed than he who buys indulgences.
- Because love grows by works of love, man thereby becomes better. Man does not, however, become better by means of indulgences but is merely freed from penalties.
- Christians are to be taught that he who sees a needy man and passes him by, yet gives his money for indulgences, does not buy papal indulgences but God's wrath.
- Christians are to be taught that, unless they have more than they need, they must reserve enough for their family needs and by no means squander it on indulgences.
- Christians are to be taught that they buying of indulgences is a matter of free choice, not commanded.
- Christians are to be taught that the pope, in granting indulgences, needs and thus desires their devout prayer more than their money.
- Christians are to be taught that papal indulgences are useful only if they do not put their trust in them, but very harmful if they lose their fear of God because of them.
- Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the indulgence preachers, he would rather that the basilica of St. Peter were burned to ashes than built up with the skin, flesh, and bones of his sheep.
- Christians are to be taught that the pope would and should wish to give of his own money, even though he had to sell the basilica of St. Peter, to many of those from whom certain hawkers of indulgences cajole money.
- It is vain to trust in salvation by indulgence letters, even though the indulgence commissary, or even the pope, were to offer his soul as security.
- They are the enemies of Christ and the pope who forbid altogether the preaching of the Word of God in some churches in order that indulgences may be preached in others.
- Injury is done to the Word of God when, in the same sermon, an equal or larger amount of time is devoted to indulgences than to the Word.
- It is certainly the pope's sentiment that if indulgences, which are a very insignificant thing, are celebrated with one bell, one procession, and one ceremony, then the gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies.
- The true treasures of the church, out of which the pope distributes indulgences, are not sufficiently discussed or known among the people of Christ.
- That indulgences are not temporal treasures is certainly clear, for many indulgence sellers do not distribute them freely but only gather them.
- Nor are they the merits of Christ and the saints, for, even without the pope, the latter always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell for the outer man.
- St. Lawrence said that the poor of the church were the treasures of the church, but he spoke according to the usage of the word in his own time.
- Without want of consideration we say that the keys of the church, given by the merits of Christ, are that treasure.
- For it is clear that the pope's power is of itself sufficient for the remission of penalties and cases reserved by himself.
- The true treasure of the church is the most holy gospel of the glory and grace of God.
- But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to be last (Mt. 20:16).
- On the other hand, the treasure of indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to be first.
- Therefore the treasures of the gospel are nets with which one formerly fished for men of wealth.
- The treasures of indulgences are nets with which one now fishes for the wealth of men.
- The indulgences which the demagogues acclaim as the greatest graces are actually understood to be such only insofar as they promote gain.
- They are nevertheless in truth the most insignificant graces when compared with the grace of God and the piety of the cross.
- Bishops and curates are bound to admit the commissaries of papal indulgences with all reverence.
- But they are much more bound to strain their eyes and ears lest these men preach their own dreams instead of what the pope has commissioned.
- Let him who speaks against the truth concerning papal indulgences be anathema and accursed.
- But let him who guards against the lust and license of the indulgence preachers be blessed.
- Just as the pope justly thunders against those who by any means whatever contrive harm to the sale of indulgences.
- Much more does he intend to thunder against those who use indulgences as a pretext to contrive harm to holy love and truth.
- To consider papal indulgences so great that they could absolve a man even if he had done the impossible and had violated the mother of God is madness.
- We say on the contrary that papal indulgences cannot remove the very least of venial sins as far as guilt is concerned.
- To say that even St. Peter if he were now pope, could not grant greater graces is blasphemy against St. Peter and the pope.
- We say on the contrary that even the present pope, or any pope whatsoever, has greater graces at his disposal, that is, the gospel, spiritual powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is written. (1 Co 12[:28])
- To say that the cross emblazoned with the papal coat of arms, and set up by the indulgence preachers is equal in worth to the cross of Christ is blasphemy.
- The bishops, curates, and theologians who permit such talk to be spread among the people will have to answer for this.
- This unbridled preaching of indulgences makes it difficult even for learned men to rescue the reverence which is due the pope from slander or from the shrewd questions of the laity.
- Such as: ``Why does not the pope empty purgatory for the sake of holy love and the dire need of the souls that are there if he redeems an infinite number of souls for the sake of miserable money with which to build a church?'' The former reason would be most just; the latter is most trivial.
- Again, ``Why are funeral and anniversary masses for the dead continued and why does he not return or permit the withdrawal of the endowments founded for them, since it is wrong to pray for the redeemed?''
- Again, ``What is this new piety of God and the pope that for a consideration of money they permit a man who is impious and their enemy to buy out of purgatory the pious soul of a friend of God and do not rather, beca use of the need of that pious and beloved soul, free it for pure love's sake?''
- Again, ``Why are the penitential canons, long since abrogated and dead in actual fact and through disuse, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences as though they were still alive and in force?''
- Again, ``Why does not the pope, whose wealth is today greater than the wealth of the richest Crassus, build this one basilica of St. Peter with his own money rather than with the money of poor believers?''
- Again, ``What does the pope remit or grant to those who by perfect contrition already have a right to full remission and blessings?''
- Again, ``What greater blessing could come to the church than if the pope were to bestow these remissions and blessings on every believer a hundred times a day, as he now does but once?''
- ``Since the pope seeks the salvation of souls rather than money by his indulgences, why does he suspend the indulgences and pardons previously granted when they have equal efficacy?''
- To repress these very sharp arguments of the laity by force alone, and not to resolve them by giving reasons, is to expose the church and the pope to the ridicule of their enemies and to make Christians unhappy.
- If, therefore, indulgences were preached according to the spirit and intention of the pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved. Indeed, they would not exist.
- Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, ``Peace, peace,'' and there is no peace! (Jer 6:14)
- Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, ``Cross, cross,'' and there is no cross!
- Christians should be exhorted to be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, death and hell.
- And thus be confident of entering into heaven through many tribulations rather than through the false security of peace (Acts 14:22).
1518-1521 Luther Breaks with Rome
- After 95 theses the Dominican monk Tetzel tried to silence Luther with all the power of the Dominicans and with help of the Augustinian order
- The reformation was then early called a squabble of monks.
- Luther was ordered to argue his position in a debate with his own order of monks.
- Result: More monks accepted Luther’s ideas
1516-1605 Swiss Reformation
1518 Diet of Augsburg
- Luther met with Cardinal Cajetan who demanded Luther to retract
- Luther’s response:
- Only when proven by scripture
- Denied pope final authority in faith
- Denied sacraments had any power without faith.
1519 Debate with John Eck
- Eck cleverly forced Luther to admit
- fallibility of a council
- his unwillingness to accept popes decisions
- That many of Hus’ ideas were valid
1520 Luther decides to go to German People
- Luther publishes three writings:
- “Address to German Nobility”
- it was an attack on the hierarchy of the Catholic Church
- Luther used scripture to demolish three strengths of church:
- 1- Popes authority over temporal powers
- 2- Pope alone could interpret scripture
- 3- Only pope could call a council
- Luther proved with scripture these four things:
1- all believers were priest
2- Pope should not interfere with temporal affairs
3- all believers could interpret scripture
4- believers could choose their ministers
- “Babylonian Captivity
- Luther challenged the sacramental system of Roman Church
- “The freedom of Christian Man”
- Attacked the theology of the Roman Church
- Luther had attacked the Hierarchy, the sacraments and the theology of the Roman Catholic Church in these three books to the German people.
- Luther was appealing his nation for a national reform.
June 1520 Pope Leo X issued the Bull resulting in excommunication of Luther
- Luther’s books where burned
- Luther burned Leo’s bull
1521 Diet of Worms
- Luther went under protection of Frederick the elector of Saxony and founder of Wittenberg
- Luther was told to recant
- Luther said only with scripture or reason
- Luther said, “Here I stand, so help me God.”
- On his return to Wittenberg his friends kidnapped him and took him to the Wartburg castle until 1522
- After leaving Worms the diet issued an order to seize Luther and hand him over.
- They banned his writings
1521-1522 Luther translates German Bible
- Luther used Erasmus’ GNT to complete his German translation
- This set the standard for the German language for years
- Luther also wrote “On Monastic Vows” where he urged monks and nuns to repudiate their wrongful vows, to leave the cloister and marry.
1522 Zwickau Prophets arrive at Wittenburg
- While Luther was hidden in the Wartburg castle Nicholas Storch and Markus Stubner showed up in Wittenburg.
- They claimed to be prophets
- They began preaching the Anabaptists’ ideas (“ana” means “again, twice” and refers to believers who were being baptized a second time as an adult after having been baptized into the C atholic church as an infant)
- They taught the kingdom of God would soon appear
- Their followers would have special revelations
- Luther risked his life, left the castle and returned to Wittenberg to preach 8 fiery sermons.
- In these sermons he:
- defeated the prophets
- stressed the authority of the Bible
- stressed the need for gradual change in the church
1525 Anabaptists in Europe
1531 King Henry VIII (1491-1547)
- King Henry VII becomes king of England in 1509. England is a Roman Catholic country controlled by the pope
- King Henry wants a divorce from his first wife but the Roman church refused
- In 1531 Henry VII becomes head of church of England and gives grants himself a divorce
- 1933 Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn
1535 Luther breaks completely with the Anabaptist movement
- The radical wing of the reformation lost confidence in Luther
- Luther rejects the Anabaptist extreme views
- The humanist and Erasmus (their leader) broke with Luther when they saw he was breaking with Rome
- The German peasants became hostile to Luther (1525) when he opposed the peasants revolt.
- the peasants had applied his teaching of individual priesthood to the civil authorities and revolted against the government.
1531 The protestant princes organized forming the Schmalkaldic League
- They agreed to defend their faith by war if needed
- They would not need to until 1546
1535 The Lutheran order of ordination
- The official ecclesiastical break with Rome occurred
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