Romans 9:19-33

The chapter is about Israel
These verses are written as a response to the illustration of Pharaoh.

One of you will say to me: "Then why does God still blame us? For who resists his will?"

But who are you, O man, to talk back to God? "Shall what is formed say to him who formed it, 'Why did you make me like this?' "

First of all, just like Job, you are not even qualified to question God.

Isaiah 29:16
Isaiah 45:9

Does not the potter have the right to make out of the same lump of clay some pottery for noble purposes and some for common use?

2 Timothy 2:20-21
Jeremiah 18:6

What if God, choosing to show his wrath and make his power known, bore with great patience the objects of his wrath—prepared for destruction?

“Prepared” means to make ready, to prepare. The Prefect tense emphasizes the state of condition.

Some see this verse as teaching double predestination.  That is where God elects some to go to heaven and some to eternal damnation. 

1.      This verse does say they were prepared for destruction, but it does not specifically say God prepared them for destruction.  Neither does scripture.

2.      Scripture teaches that the object or the creation prepares itself.   Pharaoh prepared himself for destruction.  The vessel in 2 Tim. 2 prepared itself for noble or ignoble.

3.      Why would God prepare something for destruction and then have it said that he “bore with great patience the objects of his wrath?”  If he is waiting patiently he must be waiting for something.  If he has predestined them then God’s patience is just an illusion along with mans’ freewill, God’s justice, evangelism, his will that all men be saved, and other major Bible Themes.  But, you do prove that God is sovereign and omnipotent.

a.       Romans 2:3, 4, “. . . .do you show contempt for the riches of his kindness. . . .not realizing that God’s kindness lead you toward repentance.?

b.      2 Peter 3:9, “The Lord is not slow in keeping his promises. . .He is patient with you, not wanting anyone to perish, but everyone to come to repentance.”

c.       1 Timothy 2:4, “Who wants all men to be saved and to come to a knowledge of the truth.”

4.      “Prepared” indicates a process, but it does not have to be a process that God caused.  In Romans 1:18-28 we see clearly that it is man responding to God.  Men prepare themselves for destruction because he continues to deteriorate even though God has made himself known (Rom. 1:19, 20) and putting it in their conscience (Rm. 1:28; 2:14)

What if he did this to make the riches of his glory known to the objects of his mercy, whom he prepared in advance for glory—

“Objects of his mercy” are those who respond to God.
”Whom he prepared in advance for glory”

1)     pro-etoimazw” make up the Greek word

a.       “Pro” means “before”

b.      “etoimazdo” means “to make ready, to prepare.”

2)      This refers to the same principle as 8:29 as “those he foreknew he also predestined to be conformed. . . .those he justified, he also glorified.”

even us, whom he also called, not only from the Jews but also from the Gentiles?

The ones that God “prepared for glory” are both the believing Jews and the believing Gentiles.

As he says in Hosea:
   "I will call them 'my people' who are not my people;
      and I will call her 'my loved one' who is not my loved one,"

This is Hosea 2:23.
In context it was spoken to Israel who had been rejected as the people of God but would again be restored.

Here and in First Peter 2:10 this verse includes more than Jews, but also Gentiles.

   "It will happen that in the very place where it was said to them,
      'You are not my people,'
   they will be called 'sons of the living God.' "

This is Hosea 1:10

Isaiah cries out concerning Israel:
   "Though the number of the Israelites be like the sand by the sea,
      only the remnant will be saved.
For the Lord will carry out
      his sentence on earth with speed and finality."

This is Isaiah 10:22, 23

Here we see there will be a sifting of natural Israel from those who are also spiritual Israel.

It is just as Isaiah said previously:
   "Unless the Lord Almighty
      had left us descendants,
   we would have become like Sodom,
      we would have been like Gomorrah."

This is Isaiah1:9

If God had treated Israel like he treated the other nations (here the Canaanites in Sodom and Gomorrah) there would be no nation of Israel left

Paul switches subjects here and makes a new point.
This is his sermon to the Jews that have not believed.
All the terms and phrases of Paul’s gospel are used in this section:

a)     gospel (10:15, 16)

b)     Salvation or save (10:1, 9, 10, 13)

c)      All (10:4, 11, 12, 13)

d)     Jew and Greek (10:12)

e)     Faith (10:3)

f)        Righteousness of God (10:3)

Paul will also turn to OT verses to show the gospel in the

a)     Law (10:6-8, 19)

b)     The Prophets (9:32-33; 10:15-16, 20-21)

c)     The Writings (10:18)

”What then shall we say?” indicates a new point or a new step in his argument in Romans.

Paul begins to use terms like “righteousness”, “faith”, believe”,  “works”

This topic begins in 9:30 and goes to the end of the chapter at 10:21.

The theme of this new section is human response.
This section is giving directions to Israel on how they can recover.
It could be considered Paul’s sermon to the Jewish unbelievers.

The use of the words “pursue” and “obtain” are the picture of a foot race.

The runners stumble in the foot race over the stumbling stone.

Combines Isaiah 8:14 and 28:16