Romans 1:2


o WHICH                   proephggeilato BEFORE   HE   PROMISED   

dia  twn  THROUGH            profhtwn  autou   HIS   PROPHETS     

en IN                  grafaiV WRITINGS             agiaiV HOLY



“The gospel he promised beforehand through his prophets

 in the Holy Scriptures”


The gospel was not new nor was it a new message.

The gospel was promised and recorded in the Old Testament


Jesus appealed to the Old Testament to validate his message.

Luke 24:25-32, 44-47


The apostles continued this practice of calling on the OT to defend their message.


All of Paul’s major themes in this book will be backed up with OT scriptures and examples.


The difference is that in the OT the gospel was PROMISED and BELIEVED, but in the NT the gospel has been fulfilled and its application to our lives is a REALITY for those who BELIEVE.


“Beforehand” is added to the “promise” is redundant but is used to emphasize that the gospel was a promise before it was a reality.  There is a temporal sequence of events that take place in God’s plan.   This concept of God’s promise in the past and it being followed by temporal events is a theme through out Romans.


Read Romans 3:21                   4:3                   4:6-7


“Prophets” would refer to more than the men known as prophets but to all who spoke of the gospel in the Old Testament including Adam, Seth, Noah, Abraham, David, etc.




  Romans 1:3     


 peri  tou CONCERNING       uiou  SON       autou HIS      tou WHO       genomenou  CAME         ek  {OF [THE]     spermatoV SEED dauid OF DAVID       kata ACCORDING TO [THE]         sarka FLESH


“regarding his Son, who as to his human nature was a descendant of David”


The phrase “regarding” or “concerning” is used to introduce the focus onto the son.

The focus on the Son is going to be used to point out three things in the next two verses:

a)      his divine origin.  (This point is clouded, if not  lost, in the NIV)

b)      his coming from David and so being the Messiah

c)      his appointment as the reigning Son of God/Son of Man


Paul’s use of “son” to describe Jesus is important here because it is rare in his writings being used only 17 times to refer to Jesus.

He uses it to draw attention to Jesus’ relationship to God.


Notice in the Greek the word “genomenou” translated “came” or “has come.”  This is not the usual word for “give birth”.  This verb is describing a “coming” into the flesh by the preexistent Son of God.  Jesus coming was more than a natural birth.  It was the “becoming” of the Son into flesh.

Also:  “become” “take place” “happen”

This birth occurred


Linguistic Key: “The verb indicates a change in existence and focuses on the Son of God coming into human existence.”


The next point describes what flesh he came in.  It was the flesh “of the seed of David”.

“Flesh” or “sarka” is a term used by Paul to describe the human experience.  It means more than “body”.  It refers to the entire person. 


The hypostatic union was more than the Son walking around in a body.  The Son became a whole and complete man.  A full human.



Romans 1:4     


tou WHO        orisqentoV WAS MARKED OUT     uiou SON      qeou OF GOD        en  IN            dunamei POWER       kata ACCORDING TO [THE]        pneuma SPIRIT                 agiwsunhV OF HOLINESS          ex BY       anastasewV RESURRECTION         nekrwn OF [THE] DEAD            ihsou     JESUS        cristou     CHRIST tou  OUR        

kuriou   hmwn LORD


“and who through the Spirit of holiness was declared with power to be the Son of God by his resurrection from the dead:  Jesus Christ our Lord.”


“horisthentos” (from “horizo”) or “marked out” or “declared” or “designated”

Linguistic Key: “Aorist Passive – to mark out the boundary, to decree, to appoint,                                                         to designate.”

Vincent: “It means to designate one for something, to nominate, to instate.  There                                   is an antithesis between born (verse 3) and declared.”


Does this mean that:

1)      God proved that Jesus was his son by resurrecting him?

2)      God made Jesus his son by resurrecting him?

3)      God gave the son back his place in glory?

4)      God  appointed the eternal son of God who had become a human to a new position?


This same word “horizon” refers to Christ’s appointment as judge of all in:


Acts 17:31


Jesus was the Son of God in weakness (in the flesh) during his earthly ministry (phase one – suffering servant)

At the resurrection Jesus entered into phase two of the Messiah’s ministry.  He received his appointment as judge of all men and ruler of God’s kingdom.  Jesus became the Son of God in power (again, in the flesh).


“with power” is literally “in power”

He was declared or installed into his position “mightily” or “in a striking and triumphant manner” at his resurrection.


“From the dead” is actually “of the dead”

“From the dead” requires that the preposition “ek” (“from”) be in the text.

The correct translation is “resurrection of the dead”

See Philippians 3:11 -      ei  pwV  IF BY ANY MEANS    

katanthsw  I MAY ARRIVE         eiV AT         thn   THE exanastasin RESURRECTION                   twn OF THE

          nekrwn DEAD.


See Colossians 1:28, 29, Christ’s energy is powerfully working in Paul in his ministry.


After his resurrection Christ became a life giving spirit as in 1 Corinthians 15:45.


Christ’s resurrection “from” the dead was in our reality the resurrection “of” the dead.

We have been raised with Christ. Ephesians 2:5, 6, “God. . .made us alive with
Christ . . .and God raised us up with Christ and seated us with him in the heavenly realms in Christ Jesus, . . .”


Christ is the first fruits of all who will experience his resurrection 1 Corinthians 15:20,21.


“Jesus Christ, our Lord” was true during his ministry, but now that he has been appointed he is our ruler and our king.


Hebrews 1

Acts 13:32

Psalms 2



Romans 1:5    


di BY       ou WHOM        elabomen  WE RECEIVED carin GRACE      kai AND       apostolhn APOSTLESHIP        eiV UNTO upakohn OBEDIENCE        pistewV OF FAITH        en AMONG    pasin ALL       toiV THE          eqnesin NATIONS       uper IN BEHALF    tou OF                onomatoV  autou HIS NAME


“Through him and for his name’s sake, we received grace and apostleship to call people from among all the Gentiles to the obedience that comes from faith.”



Romans 1:6 


en AMONG          oiV  WHOM         este  ARE        kai ALSO     umeiV YE       klhtoi  CALLED       ihsou  OF JESUS       cristou CHRIST


“And you also are among those who are called to belong to Jesus Christ.”