Romans 11



Paul makes a assumption from the previous chapter that his readers may have made and then says it is not true.


Paul uses himself as an example of a Jew who God has not given up on and as proof of God’s plan to continue to use Israel.  Paul, the Jew, is an apostle to the Gentiles.



God can not reject his own plan.

This refers to the people of  Israel as a nation and their purpose.


Amos 3:2 “You only have I chosen of all the families of the earth; therefore I will punish you for all your sins.”



In the days of apostasy Israel still had a remnant then. 

The same is true in Paul’s day.  Israel will never be left without a remnant for the future.



“at the present time”


 En    tw      nun       kairw

“In     the   present     time”


Five times “nun kairw” occur together in Paul’s writing:
Romans 3:26 – “He did it to demonstrate his justice at the present time, so as to be just and the             one who justifies those who have faith in Jesus.”

Romans 8:18 -  “sufferings of the now time

2 Corinthians 6:2 – “I tell you, now is the time of God’s favor”


“Remnant chosen by grace”  There is a remnant in existence in Paul’s day because of the same principle they began in Abraham’s day.  God choose them.





The remnant Jews became Christians in Paul’s day.



Before in 9:30-32 hardened Israel was compared to the believing Gentiles.

Here hardened Israel is compared to remnant Israel.


Israel sought it, but only the elect of Israel got it.


Hardening is caused by people who reject God: Pharaoh, Romans 1, 2




From Deut. 29:4 and Isaiah 29:10


11:9, 10

Psalm 69:22, 23

Originally referred to David’s enemies and applied to Jesus’ enemies.

Paul is sees it here as applied to those who reject God and are hardened.


“their table” would be the temple furniture and ritual.

The sacrificial system revealed Jesus but for them it was a reason to reject Christ and stumble.



There are now two groups of Jews

a)      believing Jews and members of the church

b)      non-believing Jews who as a result of rejecting Christ have been hardened.


This next section focuses on the non-believing Jews.

Yet Paul is talking to Gentiles (11:13)

The hardening of Israel is not permanent.


There is a two-fold process:

a)      Israel rejects Christ and so refuses to go to the Gentiles with the good news.  This results in the good news being brought directly to the Gentiles while by-passing the Jews.

b)      Next, Israel will respond to Christ.  The results are the end time resurrection.


Five sections here:



      a) trespass of Israel

      b) salvation for the Gentiles

      c) better things when Israel responds



a)      Israel’s rejection

b)      Reconciliation of the world

c)      Israel’s acceptance be life from the dead



      a) natural branches broken off

      b) wild branches grafted in

      c) natural branches grafted back in



      a)  Hardeing of Israel

      b)  Fullness of Gentiles

      c) all Israel will be saved



     a) Disobedience of Israel

     b) Mercy for Gentiles

     c) Mercy to Israel



“rejection” refers to a throwing away or a loss of salvation through Jesus.

The Jews did the throwing away.



The dough is the Jewish people.

The first fruit offering is the believing remnant of Paul’s day (Rom. 16:5; 1 Cor. 16:15; 2 Thes. 2:13)



The tree represents the kingdom of God

Olive trees were the most cultivated tree in the Mediterranean world

The wild olive tree was very unproductive.



Jewish believers became proud of their place in God’s plan, but were unproductive.

Gentiles also need to fear both their arrogance and their lack of productivity.