Mark 1:9-13; Luke 3:21-22; John 1:29-34; Philipp. 2:5; Isaiah 53:11-12; 42:1; Psalm 2
baptism of Jesus would have been a boulder of doctrine to navigate through for
the early church. Even in Acts 19 there were disciples of John the Baptism in
3:13 - "Then Jesus came from Galilee to the
"paraginesthai" is "came". It is also used of the Magi and John the Baptist. It means "appeared"
Mark here says Jesus came "from Nazareth of Galilee. (Mark 1:9)
Matthew tells us plainly
that Jesus came "to be baptized by John" from
Why would Jesus come to be baptized by John? These are some suggestions from commentators. Some of the options below are really not possible or correct:
Although Jesus came for baptism, the use of "but" indicates that John had another plan or did not see God's purpose.
"deter" is from the word "diexoluen" which means "tried to stop". Some would say the 'dia" is perfective and means "John was for stopping him altogether."
John tries to reverse their roles and says he "needs" (not "wants") to be baptized by Jesus. John could have been referring to:
According to John 1:33, John the Baptist did not know Jesus as the Messiah until the Spirit descended on him.
I think John here is referring to Jesus' natural moral superiority to John's.
3:15 - "Jesus replied, 'Let it be so now; it is proper for us to do this to fulfill all righteousness.' " - ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ ἄφες ἄρτι οὕτως γὰρ πρέπον ἐστιν ἡμῖν πληρῶσαι πᾶσαν δικαιοσύνην. τότε ἀφίησιν αὐτόν.
"now" - this word allows for John's expectation at a future time. But, for "now" it will be moved to the future for "now" is the time for Jesus to fulfill this part of God's plan. Jesus is in a sense adjusting the timetable.
"Let it be so now" or "let's get this done"
"To fulfill all righteousness" is difficult to explain. It could mean:
3:16 - "As soon as Jesus was baptized, he went up out of the water. At that moment heaven was opened, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and lighting on him." - βαπτισθεὶς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εὐθὺς ἀνέβη ἀπὸ τοῦ ὕδατος καὶ ἰδοὺ ἠνεῴχθησαν οὶ οὐρανοί, καὶ εἶδεν πνεῦμα θεοῦ καταβαῖνον ὡσεὶ περιστερὰν ἐρχόμενον ἐπ’ αὐτόν·
"went up" is "apo" and means Jesus completely departed from the water.
The word "idou" (translated sometimes as "behold" or "look") is an expression used by Matthew to indicate amazement at what is seen or heard. "Idou" is used in this verse to refer to the heavens being opened and in the next verse to the voice speaking out of heaven.
In Jewish literature a dove
is a symbol of the Holy Spirit.
Philo wrote the a dove is divine wisdom.
So, the dove, even during the time of John the Baptist was associated with the presence of the Holy Spirit.
The Rabbis recognized that
the Holy Spirit was not active in
"Heaven Open" was seen by:
The Holy Spirit comes on Jesus like a dove and not like fire because the coming of the Holy Spirit and fire was for the refining and purifying of the people (Malachi 3). Jesus did not need to be refined from sin. Jesus character and nature were a perfect match and so the Holy Spirit could come peacefully and gently as a dove and did not need to come as a purifying agent as He does in Acts 2.
"idou" is used here again. It is the second word in the Greek after "kai" or "and"
A voice from heaven is heard three times in the gospels:
The presence of the voice indicates an eschatological event.
Isaiah 42:1 and Psalm 2 are the Old Testament verses that may indicate what is going on with the voice from heaven addressing the Son of God on the earth.
Qumran documents show that
the phrase "Son of God" was a Messianic title in
"Beloved" signifies "only" or "only-begotten" as is seen and used in John 1:18
"Pleased" means "to think it good," "to give consent," "to take pleasure in"
Jesus is both: