B  I  B  L  E       H  A  N  D  B  O  O  K 




            by Galyn Wiemers



Ezra through Nehemiah Timeline

Church History Timeline

English Bible, History of



Authenticity of New Testament Documents

Authenticity of the Old Testament



Canon, Apocrypha

Bible Translations

Christianity is Unique

Essence of God

Faith, Five Hebrew Words for

Faithfulness of God

False Doctrines


Greek Letters

Lucifer’s Fall

Mosaic Law

Philosophical Proof for Existence of God


Science and God

Spirit, Soul, Body

Spiritual Principles of God

Systematic Theology

Yahweh, Names of God

Ages (Dispensations)

End Time Events




Ezra through Nehemiah Timeline (covers 107 years)


ZERRUBABEL’S  return with 29,818 Israelites to rebuild the temple,                     23 years

539 BC           Cyrus overthrew Babylon              

     Daniel prays (in Ecbatana?)                                              Daniel 9

      Cyrus allowed any Jews to return & rebuild temple            Ezra 1:2

537     Return of the remnant                                                        Ezra 2

536     Zerubbabel goes to rebuild the temple                            Ezra 3

     Altar built and the foundation laid

     Angel comes to Daniel after 3 weeks of fasting             Daniel 10,11,12
529     Cambyses (Cyrus son) succeeds Cyrus , opposition to Jews    Ezra 4:1-5

521     Darius Hystaspes takes over the throne                          Haggai 1:2

     Darius rejects opposition to building;

     orders Samaritans to stay away                                        Ezra 5-6        

520     Ministry of Haggai.                                                              Haggai 1:1 on Aug. 29,      Haggai 2:1 on Oct.17

     Ministry of Zechariah.                                                         Zechariah 1:1 Oct/Nov

     Resume building temple                                                    Ezra 5

518     Dec. 7, 518,                                                                           Zechariah 7

516     Temple completed by Zerubbabel                                    Ezra 6:13-18   


Interlude of 31 years:                                                                    31 years


Time of  ESTHER 

Persecution in Susa; Opposition continues in Judea:        27 years


485     Xerxes begins to reign;

     Samaritans take this chance to file a complaint                                     Ezra 4:6

          Xerxes says stop rebuilding of the rebellious city, Jerusalem 483    

          Xerxes vast display of wealth and banquets                                          Esther 1

478/9  Esther goes to Xerxes and becomes Queen in Dec/Jan                      Esther 2

474     Esther’s fifth year as queen. On April 17 the execution date set by lot Esther 3:7

473     Jews are to be killed on March 7                                                               Esther 3:12-14

464-458?       Artaxerxes says to stop rebuilding the rebellious city               Ezra 4:7-23  

            Artaxerxes says “this city will not be rebuilt until I so order”                 Ezra 4:21 (Dn.9:25)


In Artaxerxes’ seventh year he issues the decree to rebuild and restore      Ezra 7:12-26 (Dn.9:25)

     Ezra leaves Babylon on April 8  to teach the law to the Jews that have returned;

     Ezra arrives in Jerusalem on Aug.4                                                         Ezra 7:8,9

People assemble on Dec. 19;

The investigation of intermarriage begins                                                   Ezra 10:9-16

457 Committee ends a three month investigation by Mar/Apr                         Ezra 10:17   


NEHEMIAH leaves Susa w/  King Artaxerxes

permission to rebuild Jerusalem’s wall:                                  13 years


445     Nehemiah leaves to rebuild the walls (Artaxerxes 20th year)               Nehemiah 1

     Mar/Apr 445, no walls                                                                                 Nehemiah 2:1

     Opposition to building walls                                                                      Nehemiah 4

     Oct. 2, 445, walls completed in 52 days                                                   Nehemiah 6:15

     Oct. 8, 445, Ezra reads Law to public for

                 first time in thirteen years                                                               Nehemiah 8:2

     Oct. 9, 445, People celebrate the Feast

                 of Tabernacles                                                                                 Nehemiah 8;13

     Oct. 30, 445, Israel confesses their sin                                                    Nehemiah 9


433     Nehemiah is recalled to Artaxerxes after a 12 year absence               Nehemiah 5:14;13:6

432     Malachi written


--------about 458 years of silence from God concerning his revelation -----


26 AD   Jesus public ministry begins. Daniel’s 70 weeks

               (or, 490 years) are interrupted.  They began w/ Artaxerxes  decree to  restore and rebuild Jerusalem in 458 BC in Ezra      7:12-26. 


               458 BC + 26 AD = 484 (Daniel’s “69 7’s”, 483 until Messiah)


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Church History Timeline


Year                       Event


64 AD    Fire in Rome – Starting on July 19, ten of fourteen sections were burnt.  Nero blamed Christians beginning sporadic and local persecution

67            Paul Beheaded by Nero

70           Jerusalem Destroyed – A Jewish revolt against Rome broke out in 66 AD.  The temple was destroyed and its gold and furniture disappeared into the Roman world.

150         Justin Martyr Writes “Apology” – The philosooher convets to Christianity and became the first apologist to explain the faith as reasonable.

156         Polycarp Martyred – The 86 year old had been a student of the Apostle John.  He is burnt at the stake in Smyrna.

177         Irenaeus becomes Bishop in Lyons (city in modern France)– A life long acquaintance of Polycarp used the writings of John to defeat Gnosticism

196         Tertullian begins to Write- An African who wrote in Latin which became the language of theology to describe the Trinity. He joined a charismatic/puritan group in 206 and began to look for the return of Christ.  Famous Quote: “The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church.”

205         Origen begins to Write – In Alexandria, Egypt he became president of a Bible school at the age of 18 due to the martyrdom of all the other leaders including his Father.  He had a long writing career.

251         Cyprian Writes “On the Unity of the Church” – A wealthy, cultured Pagan gave his possessions to the poor, vowed chastity.  Became bishop of Carthage.  He said, “A second birth created me a new man by means of the spirit breathed from heaven.” He was no Theologian but practically worked in the office of a leading pastor for church unity

270         Anthony Begins Life as a Hermit – His original idea sparks the monastic movement.

312         Constantine Converts to Christianity

325         Council of Nicea – Due to Arius’ teaching that Jesus was divine but not God a deadly debate broke out and was the focal point of this council.

367         Athanasius’s Letter Recognizes New Testament Canon Books- He used two standards: 1) Apostolic Origin, 2) The use of the writings in the churches.

385         Bishop Ambrose Defies the Empress – Church power uses threats loss church membership, loss of communion, loss of salvation to manipulate the political world.

387         Augustine is converted

397         Council of Carthage- This council confirmed and officially recognized Athanasius’ list of New Testament canon

398         John Chrysostom Becomes Bishop of Constantinople

405         Jerome Completes Latin Vulgate- The Latin translation that became the standard text of the church until the reformation in the 1500’s

432         Patrick goes to Ireland as a missionary after having escaped slavery there several years before.

451         Council of Chalcedon-By this time an Eastern and Western split was forming.  Rome and Alexandria, Egypt sided together against Antioch and Constantinople from the East.  They exiled each others leaders over theological issues.  400 bishops came to this council and voted to defined that Christ is “acknowledged in two natures, without confusion, without change, without division, without separation. . .the characteristic property of each nature being preserved and coming together to form one person.” This was the first council that the Roman bishop (the Pope) played a major role, a fact that caused the East to consider this the last official council with the west.

451         Columba goes to Scotland as a Missionary

590         Gregory I becomes Pope.  He asked for military troops to protect Rome from Constantinople.  None were sent so Gregory organized his own army.  He taught masses celebrated in behalf of the dead could relieve their pains in a place he believed in called purgatory.  He was interested in church music and the Gregorian chant is named after him.

732         Battle of Tours- Here Charles Martel turned back the massive forces of the Muslims that had swept across North Africa and up into Europe.  This battle saved Western civilization or else we might be speaking Arabic.

800         Charlemagne Crowned Emperor-He united an empire in the West, provided leadership and protection, and did not see any reason to submit to the pope.

1054       The East and West Schism- East used Greek for theology, the West used Latin.  Worship styles were different concerning communion bread, the date for Lent, and how to celebrate mass.  Eastern priest could marry but had to have a beard.  Vice-versa in the West.  The pope sent delegates to the East. They were refused a hearing and the delegates excommunicated the churches leader in the East.  He in return excommunicated the Western delegates.  The East became the Greek Orthodox Church.  The West became the Roman Catholic Church.

1095       First Crusade launched by  Pope Urban II

1150       University of Oxford founded

1173       Waldensians founded by Peter Waldo

1206       Francis of Assisi Renounces Wealth

1215       Fourth Lateran Council ruled that every baptized person must annually make confession to a priest and take communion.  The doctrine of transubstantiation was made official.  There was only one true church.  Disagreeing with the church was no longer an option.  The state could punish heretics and confiscate their property.  Jews were required to wear special identifying badges and Christians could not do business with the Jews, in time placing the Jews in the ghettos.

1252       Pope Innocent IV authorized torture as a means of getting information and confessions out of people in cases of heresy.

1273       Thomas Aquinas Completes huge Theological work called “Summa Theologica” that becomes the theological base of Christianity

1321       Dante Completes the Divine Comedy

1380       Wycliffe Oversees The Translation of the Bible into English

1415       John Hus is burnt at the Stake by the Church for asserting that Christ alone is the head of the church, that God alone can forgive sin, that the pope could not establish doctrine apart from the Bible.  Influenced by Wycliffe he lifted Biblical preaching to an important place with the church service.  He challenged the worldliness of the church leaders by comparing them to Christ: They rode a horse, Christ walked.   They had their feet kissed, Christ washed the disciples feet.  His nation of Bohemia rebelled successfully against the Catholic church.

1456       Johann Gutenberg’s Printing Press produces the first printed Bible.  A new age of communication has opened up.

1478       Establishment of Spanish Inquisition- The church turned those who did not agree with their doctrines over to be killed.  They would torture people until they turned others in or confessed they to taught against the “accepted” church teachings.  The Church could confiscate property of the condemned.  The Protestants took hold of northern Europe.  Spain and the south fell into the hands of the Roman Catholic Church

1512       Michelangelo Completes Sistine Chapel Ceiling

1517       Martin Luther Posts his 95 Theses

1523       Zwingli Leads Swiss Reformation

1525       Anabaptist Movement Begins- For some people the reformation was not moving fast enough back to the first century church of scripture.  Lutherans and members of the Swiss Reformation were still caught in church hierarchy.  The conflict that surfaced was infant baptism.  On January 21, 1525

                the church order them to cease disputation.  That cold, snowy  evening the rebels went out rebaptized the adults.  They were called Anabaptist, or “rebaptizer by the church.  They would often interrupt Protestant church meetings and refused to go to war for their nation.  The Mennonites and Brethren churches are descendants of this group.

1536       John Calvin Publishes “The Institutes of the Christian Religion”

1545       Council of Trent Begins-In response to the Protestants acquisitions and masses of people leaving, this 18 year meeting abolished indulgences, and the clergy were exhorted to “avoid even the smallest faults.”  But they restated the Catholic doctrine and rejected the Protestant claim of only two of the seven sacraments.  They rejected the reformed teaching that a person could know that they were justified.  They reaffirmed transubstantiation (bread and wine became Christ).  Church services still could not be in the common languages but had to be in Latin.  And “Fearing what would happen if every plowboy could indeed read the Scriptures for himself, the council again said the church alone could adequately interpret Scripture and refused the use of the Bible in the languages for the people. Only the Latin Vulgate was accepted.

1572       Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre- The Queen of France, Catherine de Medici, ordered the execution of all Protestant leaders in Paris.  At 4:00 a.m. on August 24, on St Bartholomew’s Day.  Most of the Protestants were middle class, when the upper class began to execute the middle class protestants leaders, the lower class joined in.  Bodies were piled up by the hundreds.  30,000 – 40,000 Protestants died.

1608       First Baptist Baptized by John Smith

1611       Publication of the King James Bible

1620       Pilgrims sign Mayflower Compact

1648       Society of Friends Founded by George Fox

1678       John Bunyan’s “The Pilgrims Progress” is published

1735       The Great Awakening under Jonathan Edwards – Believing in Calvin’s doctrine of election he believed God chooses whom he will save, Edwards insisted that pastors in the New England colonies preach about the gravity of sin and the necessity of the heart turning toward God.  Jonathan Edwards was not flamboyant and his sermons were centered on justification by faith with his intellectual bent.   The result was surprisingly an incredible emotional response that included wailing and bodily contortions that Edwards called emotional excesses that were evidence of the Spirit of God moving in human hearts.

1738       John Wesley’s Conversion – John joined his brothers home Bible study they called  Holy Club” that searched for holiness.  This became the Methodists.

1780       Robert Raikes begins Sunday School

1793       William Carey Sails for India

1807       Slave Trade Abolished by vote of British Parliament

1816       African Methodist Episcopal Church Founded by Richard Allen

1830       Charles G. Finney’s Urban Revivals Begin

1830       John Nelson Darby helps start the Plymouth Brethren.  Darby was the first to teach the doctrine of the rapture of the church.

1854       Hudson Taylor arrives in China

1854       Soren Kierkegaard Publishes attacks on Christendom – He became the father of “existentialism” which gained prominence in the 20th century.  He is responsible for much of the subjectivity of modern theology.

1854       Charles Spurgeon becomes Pastor in London

1855       Dwight L. Moody’s conversion

1857       David Livingstone Publishes Missionary Travels

1865       Salvation Army Founded by William Booth

1870       Papal Infallibility proclaimed doctrine by Pope Pius IX

1906       Azusa Street Revival launches Pentecostalism

1910       Fundamentalist Movement launched by the Publication of “The Fundamentals”

1919       Karl Barth’s “Commentary on Romans” is published

1921       First Christian Radio Program

1948       World Council of Churches is formed

1949       Billy Graham’s Los Angeles Crusades

1960       Modern Charismatic Movement begins

1963       Martin Luther King, Jr., leads March on Washington

1970       Chinese Church Grows despite shutdown of churches


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English Bible


The History of the English Bible


1250 AD                Cardinal Hugo places chapter divisions into scripture

                Years later Athias adds OT verses and Robert Stevens adds NT

1350 ca Scholars, like Wycliffe, are unfamiliar with original Hebrew and Greek languages.  All translating is from Latin to English

1375-6   John Wycliffe writes “On Divine Dominion” and “On Civil Dominion” and declares that all people are under God.  States that all political/religious authority should live righteous or lose their rule and possessions.   Wycliffe is condemned for these views

1377       Pope condemns Wycliffe.

                Wycliffe condemns the church’s rituals, ceremonies, and doctrine not found in the Bible.  He says Christians are saved by divine grace.  People are responsible for themselves and it is then required that they have access to the scriptures.

1380       Wycliffe decides the best way to fight corrupt church is to give everyone a Bible.  Wycliffe’s English New Testament translation from the Latin Vulgate is released (not printed)

1382       Wycliffe’s English Old Testament is complete

1384       Wycliffe dies of a stroke.   In about 35 years, around 1420, the church is still so upset with Wycliffe they have his body dug up and burned and his ashes thrown in the Swift River.

1388       John Pruvey revises Wycliffe’s English translation


1425ca  The Renaissance bring new interest to the study of the classical writings.  An interest and need to study Greek and Hebrew follow.

1448       Pope Nicholas brings Codex Vaticanus to the Vatican

1500       Oxford is teaching Greek

1515       William Tyndale graduates from Oxford saying to a clergyman who resisted translating the scriptures: “If God spare my life, ere many years, I will cause a boy that driveth the plough to know more of the scriptures than thou dost.”

1516       Erasmus publishes his Textus Receptus.  Erasmus used 5 Greek New Testament manuscripts:

                                1) 11th century MSS of Gospels, Acts,                                             Epistles

                                2) 5th century MSS of Gospels

                                3) 12th –14th century of Acts and Epistles

                                4) 15th century of Acts and Epistles

                                5) 12th century of Revelation

                                -He also used Latin copies to fill in the gaps.

1517       Martin Luther posts his 95 theses on October 31

1519       2nd Edition of Textus Receptus with revised Greek text.

1522       3rd Edition of Textus Receptus now includes 1 Jn5:7 that Erasmus did not want and had omitted

                Martin Luther makes a German translation from Erasmus’1516 text.

1523       Tyndale goes to London; the bishop refuses to let him work on an English translation

1524       Tyndale goes to Germany to work on his English translation

1525       Tyndale finishes the first English translation directly from a Greek text.  He used Erasmus’ 1516 Textus Receptus.  Germany smuggles 15,000 copies to England.  England burns the copies as fast as they can find them.

1527       The fourth edition of Textus Receptus is finished.  It includes along with theGreek, the Latin Vulgate and Erasmus’s translation into Latin

1535       The fifth edition of Textus Receptus is finished

1536       October 6, Tyndale is strangled and burnt by England’s King Henry VIII and the Church of England.  Tyndale dies praying,

                “Lord, open the King of England’s eyes.”  This prayer is almost immediately answered. . .

1537       King Henry VIII breaks ties with the pope and orders royal funds used to print Miles Coverdale’s English Bible.  Henry did not know Coverdale’s work was simply the finishing of Tyndale’s OT work.  It was printed along with Tyndales NT.

                This Bible becomes the first English Bible Authorized for public use.  It is called TheGreat Bible”

1543       King Henry VIII changes his mind along with parliament and makes it a crime to use an English Bible with out a licensed person.  England again begins to burn Tyndale and Coverdale Bibles.

1553       (Father Ephream uses some old vellum in a Syrian Monestary to record sermons by erasing the GNT MSS from 400’s)

1554       Queen Mary of England attempts to restate Roman Catholicism in England.  She executes protestants.  She executes Bible translators: John Rogers an dThomas Cranmer.  Coverdale is arrested.  Protestants flee England.

1550’s    Geneva Bible  Whitingham, an English exile, uses Beza’s Latin and some Greek to make a small inexpensive Bible with John Calvin’s strongly evangelical notes.

1568       “Bishop’s Bible  English church leaders realize the “Geneva Bible” is a better translation than the Great Bible.  The Great Bible is revised and called “Bishop’s Bible.”  This became the main Bible until the “King James”

1580       (Catherine de Medici of France dies, her books are placed in the French National Library in Paris.  Included unknowingly is Father Ephraem’s book of sermons coied in 1553 on GNT MSS from 400’s.  They will be discovered in 254 years in 1834)

1611       King James Bible is finished using “Textus Receptus” as the Greek Text

1627       Codex Alexandrinus, Brought to England from Greek Orthodox in the East.  It is a MSS from the 400’s and it includes Revelation.


1700       John Mills produces an improved “Textus Receptus

1730       Bengel’s Greek New Testament deviates from Erasmus’           

                Textus Receptus due to Codex Alexandrinus

1750       Textus Receptus itself begins to change

1809       Napoleon takes Pope and the Vatican Library into exile.  Someone takes note of some ancient manuscripts on parchment.

1815       Vatican Library Returned

1831       Lachman’s New Greek New Testament text is based on Manuscripts from 300’s

1834       A student in the back stacks of the French National Library in Paris is working on a term paper on Father Ephream.  While reading Father Ephream’s hand written sermons he notices that the Father had erased something first.    Ephraemi Rescriptus, a GNT MSS from the 400’s is discovered.

1843       Someone remembers seeing the Codex Vaticanus in the Vatican.  Tregelles and Tischendorf are allowed to view it.

1844       Tischendorf discovers Codex Sinaiticus in a monestary at Mt.Sinia and saves it from the fire.  It is an almost complete Bible MSS from 350 AD

1845       Tregelles memorizes Codex Vaticanus as the pope gave him permission to read it for a few hours a day, but could not take notes, use paper or pen, and could not remove it.  He read it and memorized it in all three languages while guards observed him.

                He would return to his room each night and write it out.  By the end of the summer he had a copy of the text of Codex Vaticanus.

1849       Henry Alford compiles his Greek New Testament Text

1857       Tregelles begins publishing his GNT text between 1857-1872 that he memorized from Codex Vaticanus

1859       Pope is very upset with Tregelles’ work.  The pope reacts by having Codex Vaticanus photographed and released to the public.  This manuscript had been available at the Vatican since 1481 and dates back to 320.  It includes almost the entire Bible.

1860’s    By now there are three very good Greek New Testament Text that surpass the Textus Receptus:

                                1)Tregelles    2) Tischendorf’s     3) Westcott and Hort’s

1870       The Convocation of Canterbury decided to revise the King James.  Sixty-five British scholars made significant changes to the KJ Bible.  They corrected mistranslations of Hebrew words and reformatted the poetic passages into poetic form.  The NT had thousands of changes based upon better textual evidence.The English Revised Version is released. American scholars were invited to participate with the understanding that if their suggestions were not accepted they could not publish their own version until 1901.  In 1901 several of the surviving members published the American Standard Version

1871       John Nelson Darby, Plymouth Brethren, made a new translation into English using mainly Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus called New Translation Bible.

1872       J.B. Rotherham publishes a translation of Tregelles text,            in which he attempted to reflect the emphasis inherent               in the Greek text.  This was The Emphasized Bible.

1881       Westcott and Hort release their GNT text

                King James is revised.  They attempt to make each     Greek word same in English.            

1900       Oxyrhynchos Papyri found.  2000 stuffed crocodiles are found containing a library of papyri from the first century that include many daily documents but also Greek grammars, etymologies and much more.  This is a turning point in Greek studies.

1901       American Standard Version is released by the American scholars who had joined the 65 British scholars in 1870 to revise the King James and form the English Revised version.

1902       The Twentieth Century New Testament       20 men and women worked to produce a smooth-flowing easy to read translation.

1903       Richard Weymouth published The New Testament in Modern Speech.  Weymouth had a Doctor of Literature from the University of London and spent his life producing an edition of the Greek text (1862) that was more accurate than Textus Receptus.

1906       A Jewish Temple Library from 600 BC is discovered in Elephantine, Egypt.

1913       James Moffiatt, a Scottish scholar published The New Testament: A New Translation.  Unfortunately it was based on Soden’s Greek New Testament text that is now considered defective.

1923       Edgar J. Goodspeed, a professor of New Testament at the University of Chicago released The Twentieth Century New Testament.  He had criticized Weymouth’s and Moffiatt’s translations and had been challenged to do better.

1927       Adolf Deissman writes “Light From the Ancient East” after 20 years of study of the papyri of Oxyrhynchos.

1931       November 19, the Chester Beatty Papyri from 90’s-200’s AD are purchased from a dealer in Egypt.  Three manuscripts contain a large portion of the New Testament. P45 (200’s AD) contains portions of Gospels and Acts. P46 (90’s AD) almost all of Paul’s epistles and Hebrews. P47 (200’s AD) contain Revelation 9-17.

1933       Russian Communist, who see no value but cash in Codex Sinaiticus, sell it to Great Britian.

1947       Dead Sea Scrolls discovered             

1952       The English Revised and the American Standard Version were accurate but hard to read.  New manuscript finds demanded a revision of the Greek Text.  The result was the Revised Standard Version generally based on Masoretic Text for the OT (1952) and the 17th edition of Nestle Text for the NT (1946).  It was a revision which sought to preserve all that is best in the English Bible.  It was well received by Protestants and son became their standard text.  Evangelicals and fundamentals rejected it mainly because of Isaiah 7:14, “Look, a young woman is with child and whall bear a son.” It did not use the word “virgin.”

1954       Bodmer Papyrus published

1961       The New English Bible, it was to be a fresh translation in modern idiom (though extremely British) of the original languages.  This was not a revision.  They produced readings from different text never before produced in English.

1962       The Living Bible, Kenneth Taylor’s paraphrase of the NT Epistles.  Taylor paraphrased from the American Standard Version.

1966       Good News for Modern Man (NT) Published by the American Bible Society.  Promoted and made affordable sold more than 35,000,000 copies in six years.  Influenced by the linguistic theory of dynamic equivalence

1971       New American Standard, this is a revision of the American Standard Version (1901).  The popularity of the American Standard Translation was failing. 32 Scholars who believed in a literal translation prepared a new revision.  Very good study Bible but hard to read and 30 years behind in the area of the text.

1976       Due to the success of the Good News Bible NT of 1966 the entire Bible was done: The Good News Bible: Today’s English Version.

1978       New International Version, a completely new rendering of the original languages done by an international group of more than 100 scholars.  It is an excellent thought-for-thought translation in contemporary English.  Scholars from U.S. Canada, Great Britain, Australia and New Zealand sought to use vocabulary common to the major English-speaking nations of the world.

                The NT was finished in 1973 and the OT in 1978.  Since 1987 the NIV has outsold the KJ, a feat never accomplished by any other translation.

1979       Novum Testamentum Graece – 1

1982       New King James

1985       New International Version revised

1986       New Jerusalem Bible

                Novum Testamentum Graece – 2, corrections had been made

1989       New English Bible revised

1990       New Revised Standard

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2 Timothy 4:18          “The Lord will rescue me.”

Proverbs 16:7           “he makes even his enemies live at peace with him.”

Proverbs 24:16         “A righteous man falls seven times, he rises again.”

Isaiah 41:10              “I will strengthen you and help you.”

Matthew 21:22          “You will receive whatever you ask for    in prayer.”

Ephesians 3:20        “. . .Him who is able to do immeasurably more. . .”

Philippians 4:19       “My God will meet all your needs.”

Deuteronomy 33:27 “The eternal God is your refuge, . . .everlasting arms

Psalms 9:9                “The Lord is a refuge for the oppressed, a stronghold.”

Psalms 23:4              “Even though I walk through the valley . . .fear no evil

Psalms 34:4              “I sought the Lord. . .He delivered me from all my fears

Psalms 34:19            “. . .many troubles, . . the Lord delivers him from them

Psalms 37:23,24      “though he stumble he will not fall.”

Psalms 37:25            “I have never seen the righteous forsaken.”

Psalms 46:1              “God is our refuge and strength, an ever present help

Psalms 50:15            “I will deliver you, and you will honor me.”

Psalms 55:22            “Cast your cares on the Lord & he will sustain you.”

Psalms 147:3            “He heals the broken hearted & binds up their wounds

Proverbs 12:13         “A righteous man escapes trouble.”

Proverbs 3:5,6          “Trust in the Lord with all your heart. . .paths straight

Nahum 1:7                “He cares for those who trust in him.”

Matthew 10:29,30    “Even the very hairs of your head are all numbered.”

Matthew 11:28          “Come to me. . .I will give you rest.”

Romans 8:28            “In all things God works for the good of those who. . .

Mark 11:24                “Whatever you ask for in prayer, believe that you have

John 15:7                  “. . .ask whatever you wish, and it will be given you.”

John 16:23                “My Father will give you whatever you ask in my name

John 16:24                “Ask and you will receive, & your joy will be complete

Matthew 7:7-8           “Ask and it will be given to you; seek and you will find

Luke 1:37                  “For nothing is impossible with God.”

Matthew 17:20          “You can say to this mountain, “Move. . and it will . . .

Matthew 17:20          “Nothing will be impossible for you.”

Matthew 21:22          “If you believe, you will receive whatever you ask

Psalms 34:10            “Those who seek the Lord lack no good thing.”

Psalms 103:2-5        “Who forgives all your sins and heals all your diseases

1 Corinthians 9:8,11 “In all things at all times, having all that you need

3 John 2                    “Enjoy good health . .even as your soul is getting along

Deuteronomy 31:8 “The Lord himself goes before you . . .will not leave

Isaiah 30:18              “The Lord longs to be gracious to you. . . .wait for him

Psalms 68:20            “From the Sovereign Lord comes escape from death

Matthew 6:25            “Do not worry about your life. . .eat or drink. . .clothes.

Matthew 6:33            “Seek first his kingdom. . .all these things will be given

Hebrews 1:14           “Are not all angels ministering spirits sent to serve

Hebrews 13:5           “Never will I leave you; never will I forsake you.”

Hebrews 13:6           “The Lord is my helper; I will not be afraid.”

Hebrews 13:6           “What can man do to me?”

John 14:27                “Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid

John 16:33                “In this world you will have trouble. . .I have overcome

Psalms 138:8            “The Lord will fulfill his purpose for me.”

1 Samuel 17:47        “For the battle is the Lord’s”

Philippians 4:13       “I can do everything through him. . .”

Romans 8:37            “In all these things we are more than conquerors.”

1 Peter 2:24               “By his wounds you have been healed.”

1 John 5:4                 “Everyone born of God overcomes the world.”

Revelation 12:11      “They overcame him by the blood of the lamb.”

1 John 4:4                 “The one who is in you is greater than the one in world

2 Timothy 1:7            “For God did not give us a spirit of timidity. .but power

Psalm 91:9,10           “No harm will befall you, no disaster will near your. . .

Psalms 23:1              “The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not be in want.

Philippians 2:13       “For it is God who works in you to will and to act

1 John 5:14,15         “If we ask anything according to his will, he hears us.  We know that we have what we asked of him.”

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Point #1:   Christianity is not blind faith or intellectual      suicide.

            Faith in Christianity is based on evidence and God has always intended it to be that way.

“You shall know the truth and the truth will make                       you free.”                      John 8:32

“Love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul and with all your mind.”  

                                  Matthew 22:37


Point #2: It is not how great you believe something that makes it true, but believing something that is true makes it great.

            Jesus is the real object of our faith.  The value of the Christian faith is not in the one believing, but in the one who is believed in.


Point #3: The difference between Greek mythology and potential Christian mythology is that similar events in Christianity happened to real, historical flesh and blood individuals.  Moses and the historical Egyptians, Samson and the real Philistines, Jesus and the well documented Romans.


            *  All the ancient myths have been exposed long ago.  It is common to see the modern secular world still trying to undermine Christianity.


            * Myths never claim to have an eyewitness. 

            The Bible does claim to have eyewitnesses:

                        2 Peter 1:16                  1 John 1:1-3      Luke 1:1-3

                        Acts 1:1-3                     1 Cor.15: 6-8     John 20:30

                        Acts 10:39-42                1 Peter 5:1


            *When the apostles preached they appealed to the public to recall the events they had seen:

                        Acts 2:22                      Acts 26:24-28


“Apologetics” comes from the Greek word  apologia, or “apologia.”  It means “defense.”  It was used to describe the argument of defense in court during a judicial interrogation.  It describes giving an answer to the skeptical, abusive inquiries.


apologia is used in 1 Peter 3:15 and translated as “answer” in the NIV. 

“But in your hearts set apart Christ as Lord. Always be prepared to give an answer to everyone who asks you to give the reason for the hope that you have.  But do this with gentleness and respect.”


Also:    Acts 22:1;    Colossians 4:6;    Philippians 1:7; 1:16;       Jude 3


“We can not pander to a man’s intellectual arrogance,

but we must cater to his intellectual integrity.”


“Christian faith goes beyond reason but never against it.”


“I know whom I have believed.”         2 Timothy 1:12


The heart cannot rejoice in what the mind rejects.



A presupposition is simply an idea that is presupposed which means to suppose or assume an idea before any evidence is assembled or presented


Everyone tends to live life with certain presuppositions.  A person’s religion and their philosophy for life should be carefully investigated.


Many Christians and churches are filled with unknown and indefensible presuppositions concerning their own faith.  Likewise, the secular public also has their presuppositions in which they study history, and all other subjects. 


These philosophical presuppositions are:

            1) There is no God                    

     2) There are no miracles

     3) We live in a closed system     (what you see is all there is)

     4) There is no supernatural


These presuppositions are the beginning of the secular world’s evaluation of Christianity.   The presuppositions of Christianity will never influence the secular world to reconsider their presuppositions.   We must provide an answer that is backed up by evidence as Peter says in 1 Peter 3:5 that will stand up in court.  God has provided the evidence if we will discover it and use it.

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Authenticity of New Testament

Authenticity is the general historicity and reliability.


Critics of New Testament Authenticity say:

1) The New Testament contains legends

2) New Testament events are not historical

3) The books were written by church people

     trying to promote a particular belief or view.

4) The New Testament books were not written by claimed authors

5) The New Testament books were not written in the first century

6) The books (letters, epistles) were not sent to the people that supposedly received them.


Reasons to embrace the Authenticity of the NT:

1) Effect must have adequate cause.

                 We can see the powerful effect and the tremendous impact on history from the written New Testament documents during         2000 years of history.

2) The quality and the quantity of available ancient manuscripts that have come down to us from the earliest dates.

                 a) A manuscript is a hand copy of a document.  A printed copy would not be a manuscript.

          b) Most manuscripts wore out from use and time has consumed most of the ancient world’s written documents.



c) Examples of available manuscripts:

* Homer’s Illiad. . . . . . . . . .643 existing manuscripts (2nd)

* Caesar’s “Gallic Wars” . . . 10 existing manuscripts

* “Histories of Tacitus”. . . . . .4 ½ existing manuscripts

* New Testament. . . . . . 24,600 existing manuscripts  (1st)

     (also, an additional 24,000 NT portions available.)


POINT: “To be skeptical of the resultant text of the New Testament books is to allow all of classical antiquity to slip into obscurity, for no documents of the ancient period are as well attested bibliographically as the New Testament.”


                3) None of the original autographs of any ancient document still exist.  We do know the accepted date for the writing of the original and we can set the                        date when the copy (manuscript) was written.  The time between the original writing and the oldest existing copy is call the elapse time.


a) Homer’s Illiad was written in 700’s BC, the oldest manuscript that we have today was copied in 1200 AD.  There were 1,900 years between Homer and our oldest manuscript.  A lot can be changed in a document during 1,900 years of making copies by hand.


b) Caesar’s “Gallic Wars” was written between 58-50 BC.  Our earliest copy is from 850 AD.  An elapse time of 900 years


c) “Histories of Tacitus was written around 100 AD.  The earliest existing copy is 850 AD.  Elapse Time: 750 years


d) The New Testament was written between 46-95 AD.  The earliest existing portion is of the book of John (which was originally written in 85 AD in Ephesus, Asia) copied between 110-130 AD and found in Egypt, Africa.  An elapse time of 15-35 years and found on another continent.  This manuscript is called the John Ryland’s Manuscript.


4)  Early Translations

            a.  for the most part ancient literature was rarely translated into another language.

     b) The Syria and Latin translations or version were done about 150.  This is almost within a generation of the original autographs.

5) Early Church Fathers Use and Quotes of the NT

     a) The early church father’s (leaders in the church during the first and second century) were often people who had known and heard the apostles teach.

     b) The writings of the apostles became the New Testament.  The church fathers would have allowed a change to be made to the apostles writings, nor would                                    they have been allowed to make any lasting change themselves.  An alteration would have quickly been identified.

     c) They would not have embraced a psuedo (fake) writing.

     d) The writings of Clement of Rome serve as one of many examples.  Clement ministered along side the apostle Paul (Philippians 4:3).  We have some                                        manuscripts of Clements writings from the 1st century.Clement quotes from: Matthew, Mark, Luke, Acts, 1 Corinthians, 1 Peter, Hebrews,Titus.

     e) Ignatius, who wrote between 70-110 quotes from 15 NT books.

     f) Before the council of Nicea in 325  there were over 32,000 recorded quotes written from the New Testament.


Critics teach that the character and work of Jesus was a gradual increase of myths and traditions.  That could be true it the elapse time was 2 or 3 generations.  But, the New Testament was given to and then quoted by people who had known Jesus.  The truth is there is no time for creating a change in Jesus or in his work.  There are too many on lookers for one person to create a false quote, let alone an entire false book.


A few Manuscripts:

John Ryland’ MS (from 110-130 AD): A fragment that Destroy the liberal view that the book of John was not written until 160 AD by a pseudo-John.

Bodmer Papyrus II (from 150-200): Contains most of the book of John

Chester Beatty Papyri (from 200 AD): Papyrus codices, 3 contain major parts of the New Testament.

Codex Vaticanus (325-350): Found in the popes library in the Vatican.  In 1845  Tregellas memorized it in its Greek,             Hebrew, and Aramaic and then  published it.                   Contained nearly the whole Bible.

Codex Sinaiticus (from 350): A German scholar discovered it being thrown into a fireplace at a monastery at Mt Sinai in 1844. Contained nearly full Bible

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Authenticity of the Old Testament

Our OT is the same 39 books accepted by the Jews of Jesus’ day.

There was no council in the OT times that met to vote to   accept the books

No other ancient writings have been so accurately handed down with such an abundance of textual evidence as the Old Testament


The Critics of the OT come from the thought of Higher Criticism.

Higher Criticism is full of high-sounding technical discussions     but are really based on these presuppositions.


False Presuppositions of Higher Criticism:


1)  Moses could not have written the Pentateuch (1st five books) because writing was unknown in his day (1400 BC). . .

     BUT, archaeological discoveries have confirmed that writing was very common even among housewives  before Abraham (2000 BC)


2) The evolution of man’s cultural development does not agree with the Bible’s account of Israel’s high civiliza  tion and literary abilities . . .

     BUT, each day new evidence is uncovered revealing the advanced state of ancient civilizations and technology all across the globe.


3)  The miracle stories of were derived from ancient mythologies that were first recorded in mythology and then copied into the Bible. . .

     BUT, a bias against miracles is simply a presuppositions against the existence of God.  If God exist then miracles and prophecy are not only possible but highly probable if not necessary.


4) Fulfilled prophecy is also a miracle, and therefore impossible.  So, since the OT is filled with miracles and   prophecy then the validity of scripture is destroyed. .           BUT, all the higher critics use grammar, vocabulary and style can not deflate the truth that prophecies have come to past in history and are unfolding

     yet today.


Higher criticism teaches that 4 different mystery writers wrote Genesis and parts of the other first six books of the OT.  They are called J, E, P, D referring to a “Jehovist,” aElohist,” a “Priestly,” and a “Deuteronomist” writer between 900 and 600 BC.  This liberal view was develop and made popular between 1806-1878.  This is a ridiculous assumption for several reasons yet it is very popular and considered academic even in seminaries.  Imagine the scribes and the priest presenting this “forgery” called the Law of Moses for the first time around 700 BC to the masses of the general public and the political powers that would have existed at that time in Israel.  They would have had to tell them about Moses, the founding of the Nation, and include the concept of the holy and righteous God for first time about 700 years after it had supposedly happened.  Then they would have had to sell them on the Israel’s “traditional worship style” that they had never heard of.  It would include these:

*A priesthood                    *A system of worship                *A temple          *Power to priesthood     *A national history       

*Tithes ($) to the priest       *Circumcision w/ all men            *Holy writings    *Annual Passover          *Moses


The purpose of the Passover would then have been to remember something that never happened nor had they heard of it.

Would the Kings and rulers have accepted the priests’ new find?

Would the majority of the people? 

Why had the priesthood been so careless with these documents that no one saw them or had heard of them for several hundred years?


It is unbelievable that all the institutions in the law would have been suddenly accepted and practiced unless a generation of people were really in Egypt, and really saw Moses lead them, and really saw the miraculous delivery and provisions.  These things were written as they happened and the traditions began from reality.


Archeology shows that:
1)  Peoples, nations and their cities existed and have been excavated.   

2) The empire of David and Solomon existed

3) The Babylonian captivity and return are now considered historical

4) The names of over 40 different kings mentioned in the OT have been found in documents and inscriptions      


These things prove:

1)  The OT was written by the contemporaries of these events

2)  The OT was written carefully and accurately

3)  The OT has been copied and preserved methodically until our time.



Jesus and the Old Testament:

1.  He accepted the OT as authentic (There are 320 OT quotes in the NT)

2.  He said, “The Scripture cannot be broken.”  John 10:35

3.  He said, “It is easier for heaven and earth to pass, than one itle or the law to fail.”  Luke 16:17

4.  He accepted Moses as the author of the Pentateuch (1st 5 books) Lk24:27; Jn5

5.  He accepted Isaiah as the author of both divisions of Isaiah.

     (He quotes Isaiah 6:9-10 in Matt.13:14 & Isaiah 53:1 in     John 12:38)

6. He accepted Daniel as the author of Daniel.  Matt. 24:15

7. He accepted these people as historical:  Adam/Eve  Mt.19:4,5; Abel, Mt.23:35; Noah Lk.17:26; Abraham, Jn.8:56-58; Lot, Lk.17:28

8. He accepted creation in Genesis as historical.  Mk 10:6-9

9. He accepted the Flood as historical.  Mt.24:37-39

10. He accepted these miracles:  Sodom, Lot’s wife, Manna, serpents, Elijah, Elisha, Jonah.


It is a serious thing to challenge the authenticity of the Old Testament  when Jesus accepted it and used it as foundational material to his life and ministry.


Consider this: 

Jesus said:

“If you believed Moses you would believe me, for he wrote about me.  But since you do not believe what he wrote, how are you going to believe what    I say?”         John 5:46,47

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     a.  General Revelation is what God has revealed to all men in nature, history and conscience.

     b.  Special Revelation (direct revelation), is what God has revealed in his written word.  It is knowledge unknowable to the natural.


The books and letters of scripture are truly written by the claimed authors in the time they are said to have been written.  They were received by the people (churches, etc.) that they were addressed to.  They are not frauds, but are historical documents.


Is the recording of truth as the Spirit of God moved on men to write or speak it.  Inspiration speaks of the origin and source of the message.  The scriptures came from God the Holy Spirit.


The Bible carries with it the divine authority of God.  It is binding upon man – on his mind, conscience, will , heart.   Man, doctrine, tradition and the church are all subject to the authority of Scripture.

Inerrancy (Infallible)

This means that the scriptures are without error in the original manuscripts. It is inerrant in all that it affims (historical, scientific, moral, doctrinal.)


The one who inspired the writing of Scripture (Holy Spirit) is also the one who illumines the minds of those who read and study it.  Because of sin and darkened understanding, no one can understand scripture properly without the assistance (illumination) of the Holy Spirit.


        “Canon” comes from the Greek word “kanon.”                     

        It means originally “a reed or rod.”  Since these rods were used as measuring rods the word “kanon” came to mean “a rule or standard.” 

        This word was used to describe and identify the accepted books of scripture that would be the churches standard.


Criteria for New Testament Canonicity

a.  Apostolicity – must either be written by an apostle or someone closely associated with an apostle

b.  Reception by the Churches – must be universally received by the local churches as authentic at the time  of their writing

c.  Consistency – consistent with the doctrine that the church already possessed

d. Inspiration – Each book must give evidence, internally and externally, of being divinely inspired.

e.  Recognition – Each must be recognized as canonical in the writings of the Church Fathers and then used by those who at that time had the gift of                   pastor/teacher.


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Rejection of the Apocrypha

a.  The apocrypha was never in the Hebrew  cannon. (the OT)

b.  Jesus Christ did not, nor did any apostle, quote from the apocrypha.

c.  Josephus expressly excluded them from his list of sacred scripture.

d. No mention of the apocrypha was made in any catalogue of the canonical books in the first four centuries of the church.

e. They never claim to be inspired by their authors.

f.  No prophets were connected with these writings

g.  These books contain many historical, geographical and chronological errors.

h.  The apocrypha teaches doctrines and upholds practices which are contrary to the canon of scripture:

     -Prayers and offerings for the dead (2 Maccabees 12:41)

     -Suicide justified in 2 Maccabees 14

     -Atonement & salvation by almsgiving (giving money)

     -Cruelty to slaves justified

     -Doctrine of Emanations

     -Pre-existence of souls

Books That Were Debated for Inclusion/Exclusion in the NT Hebrews – Western church thought it was a non-Pauline forgery

James – Authorship was questioned in West

2 Peter – Authorship questioned, Chapter 2 similar to Jude

Jude – Authorship questioned

Revelation – Eusebius Questioned it because he opposed the

doctrine of Christ’s personal return to earth (chiliasm)

The Shepherd of Hermas – Non-apostolic origin; Late date of


Didache – Uncertain origin; Late date

Revelation of Peter – Authenticity doubted

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Bible Translations

The Bible was originally written in Hebrew (the Old Testament) and Greek (the New Testament)

For years it has been translated into other languages for other people to read.


Two basic methods of Bible Translation

1)  Formal Equivalence – render the exact words form for form, word for word.  But, strict literalism can distort the original meaning because it may not take into account such things as idioms.


2)  Dynamic Equivalence – reproduce the closest natural equivalent of the original.  It does this first in meaning, second in style.  This is to give modern reader the same dynamic impact.  This is thought for thought translation instead of word for word.  Of course, for this to be a correct translation you must have the correct interpretation to correctly translate the thought.


Jerome who translated the Latin Vulgate in 405 said: “For I myself not only admit but freely proclaim that in translating from the Greek (except in the case of the holy scriptures where even the order of the words is a mystery) I render sense for sense and not word for word.”


Martin Luther, when he translated the German Bible, attempted to reproduce the spirit of the author; at times this could only be done by idiomatic rendering, though when the original required it only word for word could be used.


Strictly Literal Translation

            New American Standard

Literal Translation

            New King James

            Revised Standard

            New American Bible

Literal with Freedom to be Idiomatic

            New International Version

            New Jerusalem Bible

            Revised English Bible

            New Jewish Version

Dynamic Equivalent (Modern Speech)

            Today’s English Version


            The Living Bible

Use 3 or 4 Bible translation for yourself:

            For detailed word studies. . . .   New American Standard

                                                New Revised Standard

            For general study. . . . . . . . . .New International Version

                                                   New Jerusalem Bible

            For reading pleasure. . . . . . . The Living Bible

            Other useful translations by individual men:

            Williams New Testament – by Charles B. Williams

            New Testament in Modern English – by J.B. Phillips

            Weymouth New Testament – by Richard Weymouth

            New Testament: An Expanded Translation – Kenneth Wuest

            The Worrell New Testament – by A.S. Worrell

            The Emphasized Bible (OT/NT) – by Joseph Bryant Rotheraham

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Christianity is Unique

Is Christianity only one of many religions? No. None other is like Christianity.

Do all religions possess a certain amount of truth and error?

            Scriptural Christianity is either all true or all false

            Christianity is absolutely true or completely false.

If Christianity is true then all other religions are false.


1) The Bible Claims to be Unique

            a) The God of the Bible is the only true God (Jeremiah 10:10)

            b) Christ is the only way to God (John 14:6)

            c) The Bible is the only true revelation from God (Isaiah 8:20; Rev 22:18-19)

            d) Only way of salvation (Galatians 1:9)

2) Christianity has a Unique Historical Basis

     a) Moslem. . . . . .based on teachings of Mohammed

     b) Buddhism. . . . .based on teachings of Buddha

     c) Confucianism. . .based on teachings of Confucius

     d) Christianity. . . . .NOT based on the teachings of Christ, but based on who he is and what he did in history (namely the cross)  Salvation is not in his                                                                        teaching but salvation is in Him. No other religion is as based on historical events & facts

3) Christianity has Unique Account of Origins

            -Other religions confess their utter ignorance on this point.

            -None (including evolution) can go back to the beginning

     a) Babylonian  -began with a  chaotic mixture of 3 waters

     b) Egyptian –initial watery chaos, everything else evolved

     c) Greek –a chaos of water at the beginning

     d) Roman –a universal blind interplay of atoms

     e) Evolution –similar, more sophisticated, began w/ matter

            f) Christianity –starts with special creation by an eternal,  omnipotent, personal God:

                        An eternal God. . .explains where the concept of time came from An infinite God. . adequate cause for bigness & smallness of             space

                        Omnipotent. . . accounts for vast power and matter in cosmos

                        Omniscient. . .explains intelligence and order of creation

                        Personal . . .justifies life, personality and freewill


4) Uniqueness of Jesus Christ

    No one is like Jesus Christ in history, in myths, in literature.    No one even imagined him.

    Jesus is not on a list of great religious leader. 

    Jesus is not at the head of the line because he is not even in the same line as other religious leaders.

    Jesus Christ is in contrast to them in these ways:

a) Anticipation of his coming

b) Virgin birth –there are myths of demi-gods being born but here the eternal God himself was conceived & born.

c) Divine/Human nature –the only begotten Son of God

d) Sinless Life –a whole life without sin in deed, word or thought (1 Pt.2:22; 1 Jn.3:5; 18:38; Mt.27:4; 2 Cr 5:21)

e) Unique Teaching –many non-believers call Jesus the greatest teacher ever.  Sermon on the Mount, Upper Room discourse, parables are without parallel in           history  and quoted by many religions and many non-believing    leaders, sometimes unknowingly

f) Unique Death –Jesus died of free will (J 10:18; 19:30)

g) Resurrection –greatest proof of his absolute uniqueness.

     -Other leaders have tombs and memorials.

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Essence of God

    This is also called the Character of God or Attributes of God

    If God can be known, can he be defined?

    God can not be defined exhaustively, yet he can be defined with descriptive words.

    These descriptive words are the very nature or character of God.  They are his attributes.

    God can display one attribute or quality at a given time but never is one attribute preeminent over any of the others.


Sovereignty      God rules over all.(Ps.103:19; Rom. 8:28)

Righteousness God and his plan are perfect.

                        Holiness (Rm.1:17)

Justice             God is fair.  He cannot be unfair. (Isa. 30:18)

Love God’s love is unconditional.

(1 John 4:8, 16 “o qeos agaph estin  noto qeos o agaph estin

God is love, but love is not God. No article on love making love the nature of God but not giving love its own identity.)

Eternal             God has always existed and always will be (John 11:25)

Omniscience    God knows everything and all things. Ps. 139:1-4; John 1:47,48)

Omnipotence   God has all power and can do anything. (Luke 1:37)

Omnipresence  Immanence. God is everywhere at all times. God is with us in our world, our  dimension, our time.  (Ps.139:7-12)

Infinite              Transcendent.  Outside of creation.  He is not bound by time or space.  He is beyond where we can go.

Immutability     God never changes.  (Heb. 13:8)

Veracity            God is absolute truth.  (Isa. 65:16)

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Five Hebrew Words for Faith

1.  Prop - Genesis 15:6, the word for “amen.”  It means to use God as a prop.  To use God as a foundation, to lean on Him.


2.  Slam - Psalm 37:3, the word translated “faith” or “trust.”   This Hebrew word originally used for two wrestlers grappling, when finally one is picked up and slammed down.  It began to mean to” pick up your troubles and problems and slam them on the Lord.”


3.  Flee – Psalm 57:1, used to say “flee like a bunny.”  As a rabbit would flee from a large animal.  The rabbit does not stay and fight the predator, instead he flees.  Right before he is about to be overtaken the rabbit sees a rock with a crack in it or a cleft.  He goes in and is safe.


4.  Withstand – Job 13:15, means to trust though in extreme pain.  Habbakkuk 3:17,18 and Daniel 3:17, 18.


5.  Hang on – In Isaiah 40:31 “Those who hope in the Lord. . .”  This word originally used in making rope.  There is first just a little strand, which is easy to break.  These are the “faint” in verse 30 (tired, weary, stumble and fall).  But the word is reference to the process of making a rope with that one little breakable strand.  The word “hope” in Isaiah 40:31 means to be a strand twisted into a great rope and therefore made strong and came to mean “trust.”  It means not just to “hope” but to “keep on hoping” as you become a gigantic, powerful rope which nothing can break.”


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Faithfulness of God

Faithful” is “pistos” which means “trusty, faithful; of persons who show themselves faithful.


God is faithful to forgive sins (1 John 1:9)

God is faithful to keep us saved  (2 Timothy 2:13)

God is faithful to deliver us through temptations (1 Corinthians10:13; 1 Peter 4:19)

God is faithful to keep his promises to us  (Heb. 10:;23)

God is faithful to us in suffering  ( 1 Peter 4:19)

God is faithful in fulfilling his plan for us  (1 Thess.5:24; 1 Cor. 1:4-9)

God is faithful to strengthen us  (2 Thes. 3:3)           

Jesus is the faithful and merciful high priest (Heb.  2:17)

Jesus Christ is synonymous with faithfulness(Revelation 19:11)


False Doctrines

These are the most common false doctrines that are taught


1.  Deny the deity of Jesus Christ.

2.  Deny the virgin Birth of Jesus Christ

3.  Deny the inspiration of the Word of God.

4.  Deny the inerrancy of the Word of God.

5. Deny the authority of the Word of God.  Add revelations, dreams, church authority, a man’s word or a new book from God to the same authoritative level as the Bible.

6.  Deny that man is a sinner.

7.  Deny salvation accomplished by the blood of Jesus Christ

8.  Deny the physical resurrection of Jesus Christ

9.  Deny the trinity.  Confuse the Father, Son and Spirit.

10. Deny salvation by faith.  Replace this with good deeds for salvation.

11. Deny that there is really a literal, eternal hell.

12.  Deny the character of God by overemphasizing one aspect such as the love of God.  It is eventually taught that everyone goes to heaven.

13. Deny final judgment for individual accountability to God.

14. Deny other groups or churches could be saved outside a their own special church or fellowship.


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Greek “koinonia” or “koinonia” and means “fellowship, a close mutual relationship; participation, sharing in; partnership; contribution, gift.”


Root word is “common”, “share” and is opposite of “one’s own”


Greek literature used “koinonia” to describe partners in business, joint owners of a piece of property, shareholders in a common enterprise.


Translated into English as:  fellowship, communion, participation, share a common life, partnership.


Philemon 6 reefers to Christian who share a “koinonia” faith

Philip. 1:5 refers to Christians who are “koinonia” in the gospel


Derivatives of the word Koinonia occur over 60 times in the NT in reference to the supernatural life that Christians share.


It is eternal life from God through Jesus and is shared by all believers.


Koinonia” is the combining the vertical with the horizontal, the divine with the human and constitutes its utterly unparalleled life.”



1.   Fellowship begins with faith in Jesus Christ

                 (1 Corinthians 1:9; Philemon 6)


2.  Fellowship with God requires agreement with His word.

                 (1 John 1:7)


3.  Fellowship is with the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

                 (Philippians 2:1; 2 Corinthians 13:14)


Fellowship with men means to lay down individual goals and unite as a team. (Galatians 2:9)


Fellowship can not occur with light and darkness, or            good and evil. (2 Corinthians 6:14)


6.    Maintaining fellowship with God and as a result with believers also. (1 John 1:3-10)

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The New Testament was originally written in Greek.  It was the common language of the people in the Roman world.


The alphabet:

a  b  g  d e  z  h  q   i  k  l  m  n  x  o p r s(V) t u  

a   b g  d e  z   a  th  i  k   l  m  n  x  o p  r   s     t  u  

f   c   y  w

ph ch  ps  o


A Greek word would look like this:       qeoV

It is pronounced in English:                     thee – os

It is written, or transliterated, in English:     theos

It means, or is translated, in English:     God


logoV                    low-gos               logos       “word”   (used in “logical”)

nomov                    numos            nomos    “Law”    (used in “antinomian”)

aggelov             ang-el-os angelos               “angel”  (used in “angel”)

ergon                    er-gone ergon      “work”   (used in “energy”)

teknon                tech-non              technon “child”   (not used in English)

egw                         eh-go   ego          “I have”               

blepw                  blep-w  blepo      “I see”

baptizw             bap-tidz-o baptizo             “I baptize”

zwzw                    sodz-o  sozo        “I save”

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Lucifer’s Fall


1.  The original relationship between Jehovah and Lucifer

     a.  Ezekiel 28:12-16

     b.  Isaiah 14:12

2.  Lucifer’s Sin

     a.    Ezekiel 28:16

     b.   1 Timothy 6:10 (Matt.6:24; Romans 1:25)

3.  Jehovah confronts the sin

     a.  Ezekiel 28:16 (Genesis 4:23; Psalms 145:;8)

4.  Lucifer rejects Grace

     a. Ezekiel 28:17

     b. 1 Timothy 3:6 (2 Corinthians 7:10)

5.  Lucifer challenges Jehovah & rebels with Five “I wills”

     a. Isaiah 14:13,14

6.  Angels make their choice:  “Who is Lord?”

     a. Revelation 12:7, 9

     b. Matthew 25:41

     c.  2 Peter 2:4 and Job 4:18

7.  Jehovah puts down rebellion with Four “I dids

     a. Ezekiel 28:17-18

     b.  Luke 10:18

8.  Jehovah sentenced Lucifer

     a. Matthew 25:41

Lucifer appealed the verdict. Accuses Jehovah’s character

     a. Genesis 3:1

     b. Zechariah 3:1-6, “Satan” means accuser (Rev.12:10)

10.  Jehovah suspends sentence; Begins plan to reveal his character

     a. Romans 8:36

     b. 1 John 4:4

11.  Man is created to solve the angelic conflict

     a.  Romans 5:12 and Romans 5:18

     b. Matthew 25:41 and Ephesians 2:2,3

     c.  Romans 8:36-39

     d. Isaiah 53:4-7

     e. Ephesians 1:12 and 3:21

12.  Jehovah’s plan and hidden strategy

     a. Ephesians 3:9-11

     b. Revelation 13:8

     c.  Hebrew 2:14

     d. Ephesians 1:4

     e. 1 Corinthians 2:8

     f.  1 Corinthians 2:7

     g. Romans 16:25 and 1 Timothy 3:16

13.  Victorious Proclamation: The Church Age

     a. 2 Corinthians 2:14

     b. 1 Corinthians 4:9

     c. Colossians 2:14,15

     d. Job 1:8,11;2:3

14.  The Final Battle, Arrest, Court, and Judgment

     a.         Revelation 20:1-10 

     b.         2 Peter 2:4

     c.         Jude 6

     d.         Daniel 7:9-14

     e.         Philippians 2:10-11

     f.          The witnesses

                             -1 Corinthians 6:3               

                             -Revelation 12:9,10,11

                             -Jude 14                               

                             -Revelation 1:1,2


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Mosaic Law


1.  The entire Mosaic Law is given in the Pentateuch (1st 5 books of OT)


2.  The division of the Mosaic Law

a.  Codex I. . . .The Moral Code   (Ex. 20:1-17; Lev. 11-27)

b.  Codex II. . .The Spiritual Code (Ex. 25:1-31:18; Lev.1-27)

c.  Codex III. . .The Social Code (Ex. 21:1-23:19; Leviticus)

                 (see detailed listing below)


3.  The Law to the Jew today

Nationally their eyes are veiled. 

Individually they may turn and have the veil removed. 

        (2 Cor. 3:15-16).           

4.  The Law to the Gentile

Nationally and individually they live without the law and will be judged without the law.  (Romans 2:12-16)

5.  Recipients of the law were Jews and only Jews of the OT(Exodus 19:3; Lev. 26:46; Romans 3:19; 9:4)

a.  Never was the law intended for the Gentiles

b.  Christians are not under the law

(Acts 15:5, 24; Romans 6:14; Galatians 2:19)

6.  Christ fulfilled the Law of Moses (Matthew 5:17)

a.  Codex I – he lived the perfect life

b. Codex II – his death, burial, resurrection, ascension,


c.  Codex III- patriotism and observance of the Laws of

Establishment (parents, family, priesthood and Rome)

7.  Church and relationship to Law

a.  Romans 10:4, “Christ is the end of the Law,”

b.  Since the church is not under the law, the law con not and is not the Christian way of life.

c.  Believers are under the law of Spirituality

     Rm. 8:2-4          1 Cor.13                        Gal.5:18, 22,23


8.  Limitations of Mosaic Law

a.  Can not justify (Acts 13:39; Rm.3:20,28; Gal.2:16; Phil.3:9)

b.  Can not give eternal life (Gal. 3:21)

c.  Can not provide Holy Spirit (Gal.3:2)

d.  Can not produce miracles (Gal. 3:5)

e.  Can not resolve the problem of the old sin nature (Rm. 8:3,7


9.  Present purpose of the Law

a.  Codex I:  To use the divine standard to convince man that

     he is a sinner and needs a savior.

     (Rm. 3:20,28; Gal. 3:23,24; 1 Tm.1:9,10)

b. Codex II: To communicate through Bible teaching of the principles of Codex II God’s grace of salvation for theunbeliever and spiritual rebound for the believer.

c. Codex III: To provide the basis for national function, freedom and prosperity under the divine laws of Establishment; to preserve nations under the principle of   Divine Institution


Keeping the Law is NOT the way of salvation but is a revelation of:
            1.  Man’s sin nature

     2.  Man’s salvation

     3.  Man’s freedom and of prosperity on earth.


The Division of the Law

A)  Codex I. . . .The Moral Code  (Ex.20:1-17; Lev.11-27)

1)   Known as the commandments

2)   Composed of 120 commandments

3)   Includes the Decalogue (10 commandments)

4)   It defines morality

5)   It proves man is a sinner and needs a savior (Rm.7:7-14)

6)   It provides the basis for Divine Institutions

      a)  Volition, free will. . .basis for freedom

      b)  Marriage. . .stabilizer of the human race

      c)  Family. . .basis for orderly society

      d)  Nation. . .basis for privacy, protection of rights & freedoms

7)  Summed up be Jesus in Matthew 22:36-40

8)  Fulfilled by NT saints by love (Rm.13:9-10; Gal.5:14; James 2:8)


B)  Codex II. . .The Spiritual Code  (Ex.25:1-31:18; parts of  Lev.1-27

1)  Known as the ordinances

2) Regulated worship

3) Complete shadow of Christology  (The branch of theology which

      concerns the person and work of Jesus Christ, particularly as      revealed in the OT.)

4) Complete shadow of Soteriology (“The doctrine of the plan of

salvation; the entire saving work of God.”)

5)  Includes tabernacle, holy days, levitical offerings, modus operandi   of  levitical priesthood and believer’s worship during age Jews

6)  Described as a shadow of New Testament reality (Col.2:17; Heb.8

7)  Points to a greater truth

8)  Fulfilled by NT saints in Christ (Hb.10:4-7;Gal. 3:10-14)

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C)  Codex III. . .The Social Code (Ex.21:1-23:19; parts of Lev.)


1)  Known as the judgments

2)  Outlines the perfect standard for a nation under God

3)  Includes:

a) dietary laws                             

b) soil conservation

c) laws of sanitation                   

d) taxation

e) quarantine                                              

f) military service

g) marriage                                 

h) divorce

4)  Punishments for nonobservance were also stated

5) An example of NT overriding Codex III is Acts 10:9-21

6) When the Pharisees added traditions to the Word of God they placed

them in Codex III.  Regulations concerning washings, Sabbaths,   gentiles etc. Jesus called them traditions of men and did not consider these additions scriptural.  The Pharisees did not add    to Codex I and II.

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Philosophical Proof for the Existence of God

The more a true witness is challenged the more perfect his testimony will be revealed to be.  To challenge the existence of God with an open and pure heart will only prove to that heart the reality of God’s existence. 


Where few facts are known and ignorance is great, negative evidence is of small account, but supporting evidence will have great weight.


Skeptics Will Make These False Statements:

Cosmologist can explain the origin of the universe w/o a God.

Archaeologists have shown the Bible to be a legend at best.

The Bible is too primitive for modern society’s use.

People in the past have used God to explain the unexplainable.  Today we have science.

Philosophically, the concept of God is unthinkable.

The existence of God cannot be proved in any arena.


Some True Statements:

The Bible is the only religious source from ancient times that has endured

scientific advances.


Science has explained the origin of the universe with the following

            conflicting theories:

                 a) Big Bang Theory

                 b) Oscillation Theory          

                 c) Static Universe Theory


One constant element in all three of these theories is that they demand a first cause  before they can begin.


It is irrational (unreasonable to human mind) that the universe came from nothing. 

It is irrational to the:

A) Ancient mind   

b) Eastern & Western mind   

c) Scientific mind   

d) Any mind


The existence of God is reasonable. 

It is one of the truths about God that does not take spiritual insight. 


Most spiritual truths come by revelation (Word of God, Spirit of God).


Romans 1:19-21 explains the revelation of God attainable through the process of  human reason:


“What may be known about God is plain. . .understood from what has been made. . .

they knew God. . .”


Science cannot find a natural explanation for the origin of the universe.


After thousands of years of thought and research nothing is easier to verify (nor can it be disproved) than:


“In the beginning God created the

heavens and the earth.”



Point of Doctrine:


A being greater than the universe has to exist. (we call him God)


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Reasons For The Doctrine of God:


Category A: Reasons logically  dependent on sense

            experience (a posteriori, or “posterior to”)

1.  Cause (Cosmological) – There cannot be an infinite regress of finite causes.  There must be an uncaused causer.

2.  Design (Teleological) – Observable order and design demand a designer

3.  Moral (Anthropological) – all people possess moral impulse.   Behavioral  science can not explain this since many moral behaviors go unrewarded for long periods of time.  The                         development of moral behavior cannot come out of nature. 

4.  Motion – motion cannot start itself.  Infinite regress of motion is meaningless.    The unmovable mover of the Greeks.

5.  Perfection – There is a universal pyramid of beings seen from insects to men.  Man Is at the top of the existence pyramid, but the universe is too grand for man to be the Ultimate                   expression of existence.

6.  Dependency – All things exist in a network of relationships and dependency.  Infinite regress of dependency is contradictory must begin with an independent being.


Category B: Reasons logically independent of sense   experience (a priori, or “prior to”)

7.  Perfect Being (Ontological) -concept of perfection exists but is never attained.

8.  Innate Idea – people are born with the idea of God

9.  Mysticism – man can experience God directly.  This union is so real it is self-validating

10. Truth – the concept of truth exists.  People seek truth so the ultimate truth exists.

11. Man is Finite  being finite is proof there is the infinite

12. Blessedness – man is basically restless, searching, striving.  This drive is only fulfilled when man finds God.

C. S. Lewis:  If there is hunger, there is food.  If there is thirst, there is drink.

      If there is curiosity, there is knowledge.  If there is loneliness, there is society.


                Starvation does not prove that food does not exist. 

                Loneliness does not prove people don’t exist.

                Failure to achieve immortality, to reach paradise, or to find God does not prove any of these don’t exist.


Time: Time can be measured.  We call it seconds, minutes, hours, days, and years.  Because time exist today and is actual and real and because it can be measured there had to be a beginning of time.  Timecannot go back into the past forever. If you can measure or count time it had to have a beginning and it demands an end.  This is a basic concept of math.  If you are currently counting something, there had to be an original first number. In other words before there is a “two” there has to have already been a “one”. 



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Prayer must be applied in two directions

      A.  For men to receive strength to accept the established will of God

      B.  For God to move in agreement with man’s desire


The Established Will of God

      1.  We pray for our wills to line up with God’s will

      2.  If we are to experience victory in our life we must seek,  find and live God’s established will for us and our time.

      3.  Matthew 26:39, “Yet not as I will, but as you will.”

      4.  Matthew 6:10, “Your kingdom come, your will be done on earth. .”

      5.  Acts 4:27;   James 4:1,2;     1 John 5:14


The Desired Will of Man

      1.  We go to God and by our wills ask him to intervene

      2.  For victory to be realized we must ask and believe while under the

authority of the above, “The Established Will of God”

      3.  Matthew 26:39, “My Father, if it is possible, may this cup be taken. . .

      4.  Matthew 6:11-13, “Give us today our daily bread. . .Forgive us. . .Lead  us. . .Deliver us.”

      5.  Acts 4:29      James 4:2,3            1 John 5:15


Jesus Teaching on Prayer

Luke 11:1-13 Luke 18:1-8    Matthew 5:44   Matthew 6:5-6

Matthew 6:7,8               Matthew 18:19,20 Matthew 21:22  Matthew 26:41


New Testament Teaching on Prayer

Ephesians 1:17,18       Ephesians 6:18      1 Timothy 2:1,2      1 Jn.5:14,15

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Science and God

There are no conflicts with Scripture and Nature

There are conflicts with Theology and Science


Theology is man’s study of God’s inspired scriptures

Science is man’s study of God’s created natural world


1) Both Groups (theologians and scientist) are subject to error.

        a)  Galileo (1564-1642) was kept under house arrest by the church for 8 years for supporting the Copernican theory that stated                 that the earth revolved around the sun.

        b)  Science once  believed in the eternal cosmos.

2)  Either group is subject to correction by the other

        a)  Science has refuted the flat earth theory so theologians can no                       longer use the scriptural reference to the “four corners of the                 earth” as literal.

        b)  Science held to spontaneous generation into the mid-1800’s even  though scripture taught God made them “according to their kind.”

3)  The Bible is not a science textbook.

4)  Science is constantly in the process of developing


Established facts

. . .that demand a response in support of God’s existence:

A)   If the physical forces within stars were only slightly different, our universe would be almost devoid of carbon and oxygen, and life would not exist.

B)   If gravity was slightly stronger, all stars would be red dwarfs, too cold to support life.

C)   If gravity was slightly weaker, all stars would be blue giants, burning too briefly for life to develop.

D)   The mass of the neutron in an atom is delicately balanced with the mass of the proton; if it were not protons would decay into neutrons and make life impossible.

e)  21 % of gases are oxygen.  If it was 25% fires would break out spontaneously around the globe.  If it were 15% higher life would suffocate.

f)   If proteins were not almost exactly 1,836 times heavier than electrons molecules would not be able to form and there would be no chemistry, no life, and no one to wonder why.

g)   The position and angle of the earth is set.  A few degrees closer we disintegrate. A few degrees away we become a frozen rock.

h)   The 23 degree axis of the earth provide equal distribution of sun and makes possible the food chain.

i)   The atomic clock is the most accurate time instrument we have invented.  They are accurate up to with in 3 seconds a millennium.  We use the rotation of the stars to set and check these clocks.

j)   After 150 years of study, fossil records are beginning to agree with scriptures account that life forms appeared abruptly with no transitional forms.


Laws of Thermodynamics and the Scriptures

Law #1: The law of conservation of mass and energy: 

            Matter and energy cannot be created or destroyed.

     Genesis 2:1,2  “Thus the heavens and the earth were       completed in all their vast array.  By the seventh day      God had finished the work he had been doing.”

Law #2:  The law of declining order: 

         Contents of our universe  are becoming less                       ordered and more random.

             Left to themselves things become disorganized and        wear out.


“In the beginning you laid the foundations of the

earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands. 

They will perish, but you remain;

they will all wear out like garment.”

Psalms 102:25,26

Spirit, Soul, Body


“May God himself, the God of peace, sanctify you through and through.  May your whole spirit, soul and body be kept blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.                                                   1 Thessalonians 5:23


A believers Spirit is saved (born again, new birth) once in time for all eternity.  This is complete. (Ephesians 2:6)


A believers Soul (mind) is being saved in time during their life.  This is a process. (Romans 12:1-2)


A believers Body will be saved at the rapture (resurrection) of the church.  This will happen only in the future. (1 Corinthians 15:50-54)

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Spiritual Principles of God

The Purpose:  To exemplify the unchanging nature of God


1.   Organization -God’s plan to simplify our lives God’s plan to keep      His will in perfect order


                Purpose: A consistent godly lifestyle principle

                Objective:               How to organize the organism

                Goal:         To be an effective witness for the Lord Jesus Christ


2.   Sow and Reap-God’s plan to provide for our lives God’s plan to        cause His will to reproduce after His kind


                Purpose: A faith building principle

                Objective:               How to receive the provisions of god

                Goal:         To super abound, having our needs met


3.   Stewardship -God’s plan to fulfill our lives God’s plan to cause           his will to produce an abundance


                Purpose: A character building principle

                Objective:               Wise stewardship over the provisions of God

                Goal:       To super abound and meet the needs of others


Authority -           God’s plan to protect our lives God’s plan to

                                 protect the integrity of His will


                Purpose: A discipline building principle

                Objective:               How to stay in position with God

                Goal:       To actualize concepts for successful  living




5.   Unconditional Love –God’s plan to keep our lives from failing

                God’s plan to keep his word from returning unto him void


                Purpose:                 A proper attitude building principle

                Objective:               How to have good success with God and man

                Goal:       To have victory over evil circumstances


6.   Obedience -  God’s plan to reward our lives

                                God’s plan to show forth the excellency of his will


                Purpose: A righteousness building principle

                Objective:               How to live in the blessed state

                Goal:       To put our faith into action


7.   Agreement - God’s plan to crown our lives with peace

                                God’s plan for us to be at oneness with his will


                Purpose:                 A communication, decision making, problem                    solving principle

                Objective:               How to rest in God

                Goal:       To achieve the peace that Jesus promised

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Systematic Theology

Theology – according to its etymological features, is a compound of two Greek words: “Theos” (“God”) and “Logos” (“speech” or “expression”).   It means to discourse or discuss upon one specific subject, God.  To discuss God we must include his works, his ways, his word.  Some examples of Theology are :


Augustinian Theology,       Calvinistic Theology,          

Lutheran Theology,             Arminian Theology,            

Revealed Theology,            Natural Theology,

Catholic Theology,             Evangelical Theology,       

Theology,                              Mercersburg Theology,      

Oxford Theology,                New England Theology

Biblical Theology,                Fundamental Theology,

Practical Theology,             Pastoral Theology,              

Black Theology,                   Exegetical Theology,

New Theology,                     Polemic Theology,              

Rational Theology,             Systematic Theology          

Dogmatic Theology


Systematic Theology – the collecting, scientifically arranging, comparing, exhibiting, and defending of all facts from any and every source concerning God and His works.   The person who does this must be a Biblicist or one who is not only a Biblical scholar but also a believer in the divine character of each and every portion of the text of the Bible.  Systematic Theology is not an end in itself; its purpose its to classify and clarify the truth set forth in the Scriptures. 


Systematic Theology is most often broken down into

these 8 fields of study:

Bibliology – examines the scriptures to see if the beliefs concerning the Bible are true.  It is not the study of the Bible’s content, but the study of the Bible’s nature and character.

Christology – is the doctrine respecting the Lord Jess Christ.  This theme is pursed into the preincarnate Christ, Christ incarnate, the sufferings of Christ, the resurrection of Christ, the ascension of Christ, the second advent of Christ and the eternal kingdom of Christ.


Pneumatology - is the scientific treatment of any or all the facts related to spirit.  This could include: 1) God the Spirit, 2) Angels as spirits, 3) Man’s spiritual side.  The study of angels becomes angelology and the study of man’s spirit is covered in anthropology.  The study called pneumatology generally involves information concerning the the Holy Spirit, the Trinity, symbols of the Holy Spirit, the Holy Spirit and prophecy, Holy Spirit’s work with Gentiles and Israel, Holy Spirit’s work in the lives of Christians.


Angelology – the study of the doctrine of angels.  It includes the origin, nature, fall, and classification of angel.  Also the work and destiny of the angels is involved.


Anthropology – is the doctrine of man in relation to God.  It covers the origin of man, the unity of the race, the fall of man, and the consequences of his fall.


Soteriology- that portion of Systematic Theology which treats of  salvation.  Soter is from the Greek word meaning savior.


Ecclesiology- the sixth major division of Systematic Theology, contemplates the New Testament doctrine of the Church.  Study involves the founding, organization, ordinances, and mission of the church.


Eschatology – Considers the biblical doctrines of the last things.  These are the doctrines of the second coming of Christ, of the resurrections, of the judgments, of the millennium and of the final state.

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Hebrew spelling “YHWH”, the personal name of God:     

The Lord, or Yahweh. 

Spelled in the NIV as “LORD” to distinguish it from “Adonai” or “Lord.”

Whenever the Hebrew names stand together  as in

            “YHWH Adonai” it is translated

            “Sovereign LORD”

The Root of YHWH is “hawa” which means:
     a)  existence” as of a tree trunk where it falls in Ec11:3

     b)  development” as in Neh. 6:6  Thus, the concept form these meanings (“existence” and “development”):                                              

-The Active, Self-Existent One


Sacredness of the Name YHWH:

In post-exilic times (after the Babylonian captivity in 586 BC)   YHWH began to be considered so sacred that it was not pronounce aloud.

They said Adonai (Lord) when they read YHWH.

Around 600AD the vowels of adonai (a, o, a, I) were combined with the Hebrew consonants to remind synagogue readers to pronounce Adonai.

This produced the artificial name Jehovah.


Compound Names of God

1.  Yahweh Jireh                  The Lord will provide          Gn.22:14

2.  Yahweh Nissi                  The Lord is my banner       Ex.17:15

3.  Yahweh Shalom             The Lord is peace               Judges 6:24

4.  Yahweh Sabbaoth         The Lord of Hosts                1 Sam.1:3

5.  Yahweh Maccaddeshcem            The Lord who sanctifies you             Ex.31:13

6.  Yahweh Roi                     The Lord is my shepherd   Ps.23:1

7.  Yahweh Tsidkenu          The Lord our righteousness  Jer.23:6

8.  Yahweh Shammah        The Lord is There                Ezek. 48:35

Yahweh Elohim Israel        The Lord, God of Israel      Jd. 5:3;Isa.17:6



Elohim refers to God as:

        a. Creator     

        b. Sovereign

        c. Judge        

        d. Producer of mighty works


Compound names with Elohim:


1. El Shaddai-  Shaddai sis connected wth Akkadian whch means “mountain.”  Thus, “the Almighty One standing on a mountain.”  (Gen 17:;1;28:3;35:11; Ex.6:3; Ps.91:1-2)


2. El Elyon –The Most High God.  First used in Gn.14:19, when Melchizedek blessed Abraham or Isaiah 14:14 recording of Satan’s attempt to usurp God.  Not used much until time of David.


3. El Olam – “the Everlasting God.”  Emphasizes God’s unchangeableness.  (Psalm 100:5; 103:17; Isaiah 4:28)


4. El Roi – “the God Who Sees.”  Hagar in Genesis 16:13

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Seven Ages (or, Dispensations)

Creation of man             1)  Age of Innocence


Fall of man                    2)  Age of Conscience


Flood of Noah               3)  Age of Government (1,656 years after creation)


    Tower of Babel             4)  Age of Nations (100 years after flood)


Abram & Mt Sinai         5)  Age of Israel (2000 & 1400 BC)


Death of Christ              (30 AD)


Day of Pentecost           6)  Age of Church                                                                                                          


Rapture                          (???? AD)




2nd Coming of Christ    (7 years later)


Millennium                    7)  Age of the Kingdom (1000 years)

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End Time Events

After the rapture of the church the seven year tribulation begins.

At the end of those seven years Jesus returns to the earth     (Zech.14:4).

This seven year period is detailed in Daniel 2,7,9,11;Matthew 24 and Revelation 4-19.

It is divided into the first 3 ½ years and the second 3 ½ years.


Potential Order of events during first 3 ½ years:

In Daniel                                    In Matthew 24                      In Revelation

Kingdom of



10 horns of 4th beast                


Little horn                                   False Christ appear                      1st seal-Antichrist (6:2)


Makes covenant

(9:27)                                          False peace (24:5)                                              

                                                  Wars/Cold Wars                                    2nd seal-Wars on earth (6:3)



                                                                  Famines                                                    3rd seal-Famine (6:5,6)



                                                                  Earthquakes                                             4th seal-a fourth of earth dies   (6:7,8)



Potential Order of events during second 3 ½ years:

                In Daniel                                 In Matthew 24                            In Revelation                                                     

                                                                                                            Two witnesses(13)

                Anti-christ breaks                                 Persecution of Jews                      5th seal-Martyrdom 7 year

                Covenant                                               (24:9-28)                                              of believers(6:9-11)

                w/ Israel (9:27)    


                Idol set up in temple                            Idol set up(24:15)                                Idol set up (13:14) (9:27)

                                                                                                                                      Mark 666 (13:16-18

                                                                      Sun, Moon dark                                   6th seal-Sun black


                The king (anti-chr.)                                                                                         1 st -  6th trumpets-  says He is God (8:6-19)

                (11:36-39)                                                                                                              Demonic activity begins


                The king (anti-chr)                              

                has wars but army from                                                    

                army from East

                East is trouble(11:40-45)                                                  


            Rock (Jesus)                             Sign of Son of Man                  

Jesus appears; strikes statue                                                                 Jesus appears destroys anti-chr.

            (kingdoms of man)                    (24:30)                                     (19:11-21) (2:44,45)                                                                                             


End of Tribulation


Beginning of 1,000 yr kingdom

                In Daniel                                In Matthew 24                       In Revelation

                Thrones Set Up                                    Sheep Nations & goat                        Satan locked up

                for judgment                                         nations judged. (25:31)                                      (20:1-3)



                Beast thrown in fire                              Eternal judgment                                Thrones set up to

                (Daniel 7:11)                                        ( Matt.25:46)                                         rule  (20:4)



End of 1,000 year Kingdom;



Great White Throne judgment ( Rev.20:11-15)

Old universe burns up (Rev. 21:1; 2 Pet.3:10-13)  

New Universe created for eternity (Rev.21)


Beginning of Eternal State


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