Paul makes a assumption from the previous chapter that his readers may have made and then says it is not true.
Paul uses himself as an example of a Jew who God has not
given up on and as proof of God’s plan to continue to use
God can not reject his own plan.
This refers to the people of
Amos 3:2 “You only have I chosen of all the families of the earth; therefore I will punish you for all your sins.”
In the days of apostasy
The same is true in Paul’s day.
“at the present time”
En tw nun kairw
“In the present time”
Five times “nun kairw”
occur together in Paul’s writing:
Romans 3:26 – “He did it to demonstrate his justice at the present time, so as to be just and the one who justifies those who have faith in Jesus.”
Romans 8:18 - “sufferings of the now time”
2 Corinthians 6:2 – “I tell you, now is the time of God’s favor”
“Remnant chosen by grace” There is a remnant in existence in Paul’s day because of the same principle they began in Abraham’s day. God choose them.
The remnant Jews became Christians in Paul’s day.
Before in 9:30-32 hardened
Hardening is caused by people who reject God: Pharaoh, Romans 1, 2
From Deut. 29:4 and Isaiah 29:10
Psalm 69:22, 23
Originally referred to David’s enemies and applied to Jesus’ enemies.
Paul is sees it here as applied to those who reject God and are hardened.
“their table” would be the temple furniture and ritual.
The sacrificial system revealed Jesus but for them it was a reason to reject Christ and stumble.
There are now two groups of Jews
a) believing Jews and members of the church
b) non-believing Jews who as a result of rejecting Christ have been hardened.
This next section focuses on the non-believing Jews.
Yet Paul is talking to Gentiles (11:13)
The hardening of
There is a two-fold process:
Five sections here:
a) trespass of
b) salvation for the Gentiles
c) better things
b) Reconciliation of the world
a) natural branches broken off
b) wild branches grafted in
c) natural branches grafted back in
a) Hardeing of
b) Fullness of Gentiles
b) Mercy for Gentiles
c) Mercy to
“rejection” refers to a throwing away or a loss of salvation through Jesus.
The Jews did the throwing away.
The dough is the Jewish people.
The first fruit offering is the believing remnant of Paul’s day (Rom. 16:5; 1 Cor. 16:15; 2 Thes. 2:13)
The tree represents the
Olive trees were the most cultivated tree in the Mediterranean world
The wild olive tree was very unproductive.
Jewish believers became proud of their place in God’s plan, but were unproductive.
Gentiles also need to fear both their arrogance and their lack of productivity.