The comparison of Christ to angels continues.
In chapter one 7 OT verses were used to distinguish between the Son and angels.
In 2:1-4 the message brought by angels (Law on Sinai) was compared to the message brought by the Son.
Now in these verses we bring up the administrative position of angels in this age and compare them to the coming age of the Son.
In this present world angels have administrative responsibilities, but not in the age to come.
Angelic administration or government appears in Deuteronomy 3:8.
The Septuagint translation says:
“When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance,
when he separated the children of men,
he set the bounds of the peoples
according to the number of the angels of God.”
In Daniel 10:20 we have
references to the “prince of
Ephesians 6:12 lists the positions as “rulers, authorities, powers”
1) “Ruler” – arcaV - a commencement, or (concretely) chief (in various applications of order, time, place, or rank) beginning, corner, (at the, the) first (estate), magistrate, power, principality, principle, rule.
2) “Authorities” – exousiaV - privilege, i.e. (subjectively) force, capacity, competency, freedom, or (objectively) mastery (concretely, magistrate, superhuman, one who wields great power or sway, potentate, token of control), delegated influence authority, jurisdiction, liberty, power, right, strength.
3) “Powers” – kosmokratoraV -(“kosmokratoras”) is made of two words:
a. “kosmo-“ from “kosmos” – from the base of komizo; orderly arrangement, i.e. decoration; by implication, the world (in a wide or narrow sense, including its inhabitants, literally or figuratively (morally)) adorning, world.
b. “-kratoras” from “krateo” - to use strength, i.e. seize or retain (literally or figuratively) hold, keep, lay hand (hold) on, obtain, retain, take (by). Which itself is from “kratos” and means vigor ("great") (literally or figuratively) dominion, might(-ily), power, strength.
The writer of Hebrews simply uses this topic to point out when angels have authority and when they will not. He does not discuss the details of a topic that he assumes his readers agree with and knows they understand.
“It is not to angels that
he has subjected the world to come”
– the Greek says, oikoumenhn
or “oikoumenan” for “world”.
“Oikoumenan” means the (terrene or land part of the) globe; earth,
world; Specially, the
“the world to come, about which we are speaking” means “the world to come” or the new age is the theme the writer is addressing. His point is to take his readers from the old system, the old world, the old covenant, the old order of things into an understanding of the new age of the kingdom of Christ.
This new world to come has been inaugurated when Christ ascended and was seated at the right hand of God. Yet, the old world is still in operation and has not yet been placed under the authority of the Lord Jesus Christ. The church age is that age where the message of the coming kingdom is proclaimed and nations are warned.
Yet, in Hebrews 6:5 we “have tasted the goodness of the word of God and the powers of the coming age.”
If angels do not rule the coming age or the “inhabited world of the coming kingdom”, who will rule? It will be the Son.
The Son was “appointed heir of all things” in Hebrews 1:2.
“there is a place where someone has testified”
1) The writer of Hebrews wants to stress the authority of his quote not the human author of this quote.
2) The Greek says,
a. diemarturato de pou tiV laloumen”
b. “But solemnly witnessed somewhere one saying”
3) The writer of Hebrews views the entire OT as an oracle from God
The writer of Hebrews then quotes from the Septuagint Psalm 8:4-6:
The main difference between the Hebrew text and the Septuagint text is the first line of Psalm 8:5:
1) Hebrew: “made him but little lower than God”
2) Septuagint: “made him for a little while lover than the angels.”
3) The Septuagint translates the Hebrew “me’ elohim” with the Greek words “par aggelouV” or “than angels”
4) The translation and interpretation issue concerns the word “elohim” which can be translated as God (although the “-im” makes it plural or “gods”) or should it be understood to be saying “divine beings” or “angels” as it is in Psalm 82:1:
a. “God presides in the great assembly; he gives judgment among the “gods”.
b. Both “God” and “gods” in Psalm 82:1 is “elohim”. The context determines the translation.