Titus and Crete
Paul sends his letter entitled "Titus" to the Mediterranean Island of Crete
Satellite picture of the island of Crete is below.
Titus was a Greek, a convert of Paul's. He went to the Jerusalem Council with
Paul. Titus traveled with Paul and
worked in a variety of churches that Paul started including Corinth.
Crete was one of the largest islands in the Meditterannean Sea. It had a large
Jewish population. There where Jews
from Crete in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost.
1:5 Paul gave Titus two missions
1) Straighten out what was left unfinished
a) organizing churches
b) refuting false teachers
c) instruction in doctrine
d) teach correct conduct for believers
2) appoint elders
a) in every city
Basics of Church leadership seen here:
1) Leadership comes from within the local church
2) Leadership must meet the standard of behavior
3) Leadership is balanced in a group of elders or leadership is plural in its make-up
Elders had to be:
1) Local, 2) Plural, 3) Qualified
"elder" is "presbyterous" means old man. In the NT it is a technical term for a church leader.
"appoint" (ordain) means "to give orders to, to appoint, to arrange, to ordain."
Church leaders must realize:
1) They are only saved sinners like all believers
2) They are shepherds of God's church (Acts 20:28) and so accept increased responsibility
3) They have increased public visibility and so receive increase accountabiility.
4) They are selected because they already fit the qualifications. This means others are to be living according to this standard.
Qualities of Leadership
These are the things that a person is evaluated on:
1) Marriage and family
Personality and character
3) Devotion to God's Word and willingness/ability to teach/protect the truth
Reference in Greek to the episkopon (bishop, overseer) being "a steward of God"
The Greek word for steward comes from the word "house".
1:7 is a continuation of the thought that an elder must be successful as a steward of his house because
as a church leader he is a steward of God's house.
1:5 is presbuterous
1:7 is episkopon
1:6 there is no mention of elder or overseer in Greek
These are the same basic position in Titus' day. They are church leaders.
1:7 has 5 do nots
1:8 has 6 do's
"not overbearing" is flexible in opinions, considerate of other viewpoints,
open to do God's will
"not quick-tempered is ability to control self and thus the ability to control the church.
-Proverbs 16:32 says the great man is the one who can control himself not the one who can control a city.
"not given to drunkenness" is not total abstinence. But, we must remember:1) blameless, 2) Consider the weaker brother
- 1 Cor.8:4-13; Rom. 14:1-23
"not pursuing dishonest gain
a) have a job
b) honest with money
c) not use the ministry for personal profit
"loves what is good" is devotion to what is best
Must accept, teach and protect the apostolic message so that he can:
1) Encourage believers
2) Refute those who come against it
Sound Doctrine is "Healthy Doctrine"
"rebellious" indicates people in the church
"mere talkers" is a Jewish idea for an empty, vain idol worshipper
"circumcision" refers to the Jewish converts who brought their culture into the church
"must be silenced" = "to put something on the mouth, to muzzle, to silence. It is the picture of an animal with a muzzle.
This is in the present indicative active which means "you are commanded to do it now"
"It is necessary to muzzle them."
"households" = churches
"dishonest gain" = false teachers and deceivers who were making money in the church
Epimenides was a wll known Cretan philosopher from around 500 BC from Cnossus, Crete. He was a religious teacher and
was known as a wonder worker. See the city of Cnossus, Crete below.
There is a three fold application from Epimenides quote in 1:11 to Paul's application in 1:12:
a) Liars . . .some in the Crete church where "teachings things they ought
not to teach"
b) Evil Brutes (wild animal, beast) . . .rebellious and they ruin churches
c) Lazy Gluttons . . . these believers and rebellious leaders did not want to work and made "dishonest gain" in the church
Rebuke is same word as 1:9
"sharply" also means "severely and is in the imperative mood which is the mood of command.
This word is apotomos is also used in 2 Corinthians 13:10
The elders are to rebuke (1:9)
Titus is to rebuke sharply (1:13)
The leaders will learn how to rebuke from Titus
Healthy Doctrine = Healthy Faith = Healthy Lifestyle
Jewish Myths is the second reference to a Jewish problem in the church
This is a reference to the mixture of Greek philosophy into the Jewish religion
"Commands of those who reject the truth" is a reference to legalistic
tendencies and traditions of men
-Rituals without realilty
The pure are believers and all things even cerimonial unclean things are pure to them
The corrupt are those "who do not believe" nothein is or can make them pure. Not even their rituals.
Jesus referred to this in Mt. 7:1-23
Rituals without faith are useless even in the OT
1 Sm. 15:22
Minds = their intelligence is corrupt and their minds unrenewed to God's word
Consciences = they do not know right from wrong
Paul returns to telling Titus what his responsibilities are.
The Greek says here: "sy de" translated "But as for you. . ."
Titus was to teach "healthy doctrine"
The false teachers had wrong application and so wrong life style
The "healthy doctrine" would produce the good, godly life that Paul is going to describe.
Older men where to have the character traits of maturity
a) temperate - sober, temperate, abstaining from wine either entirely or atleast in moderate use.
- Refers to general restraint in indulging desires
b) worthy of respect - characteristic of a thing or person which entitles it ot being worthy of reverence, respect, dignity.
-It also means honor and purity.
c)self-controlled - from "swzw" - 'save, keep safe, sound' and the word "frhn" - 'diaphram, parts around heart, mind'
-together they make "swfrwn" which means 'sound mind, sane, meaning to control self and curb one's desires.'
Then to be sound in
Women are to be:
a) reverent "hieroprepas" from two words 1) sacred, consecrated to
deity, and 2) to stand out, to be conspicious, to be becoming
- the word then meant to be obviously set aside for God.
b) "not to be slanderous" diabolos" is a methaphor of the man oposed to God and acts the part of the devil. It means prone to slander.
c) "addicted" is the word "doulos" and refers to a slave. It means do not be reduced to bondange to wine.
Seven areas older women can help train.
"train" means "to teach someone self-control, to train someone in self-control"
The seven areas are:
1) lovers of their husbands
2) lovers of their children
5) busy at home
7) subject to their husbands
"Self-control" is a word used in all four groups
Five characteristics of a believing slave:
1) to be subject to their masters in everthing
2) to try to please them
3) not to talk back to them
4) not to steal from them
5) to show that they can be fully trusted.
"for" (gar) means this is the doctrinal reason for doing what verse 1-10 say.
The Grace of God teaches us to live the christian life.
Salvation appeared to all men, all men can be saved.
The blessed hope is the rapture.
1 John 3:3
Seven things for good Christian citizens
1) be subject to rulers and authorities
2) to be ogedient
3) to be ready to do whatever is good
4) to slander no one
5) to be peaceable
7)to show true humility toward all men
Paul was going to spend the winter in Nicopolis
pictures of Nicopolis
museum of Nicopolis
" The city
of Nicopolis was built to commemorate the Battle of Actium and to satisfy
the military and trade needs of the region. It was located on the narrowest
part of the peninsula, close to the Gulf of Arta, meaning it had two harbors,
one in the gulf and one on the Ionian Sea. It was built in the typical Roman
style of fortified towns, with four quarters and two main roads. The city was
protected by 5 kilometers (3 miles) of fortified walls. It took six years to
build the 27-mile-long aqueduct from the nearby Louros Springs to carry water
to the city. The aqueduct ended at the Nymphaeum, which doubled as a water cistern
and the seaward gate to the city. When Nicopolis was completed, inhabitants
of the nearby cities of Etolia, Acarnania and Epirus, as well Corinth and from
as far afield as Italy, were forced to come and live in the new city. Nicoplis
not only became the capital city of the region but also a focal point of the
Mediterranean due to its geographical position bridging Greece and Italy. Strabo,
a contemporary Greek historian, described Nicopolis as populous, with numbers
increasing daily. Eventually the population reached around 300,000 – a huge
number in ancient times. The city flourished, boasting grand public buildings
such as the Odeon, a theater and a stadium. The city even minted its own coins.
St Paul the Apostle speaks of Nicopolis in Titus 3:12, written circa 64-65 A.D.,
requesting that Titus meet him in the city, saying, "I have determined to winter