49 Council of Jerusalem
1st Church Council
Issue was circumcision and Jewish Law
Set a pattern for the ecumenical councils:
tradition and authoritative
Leaders recognized that the Spirit came to Jews
and Gentiles in the same way
Faith in Jesus
of the Law
The Christian movement became a trans-cultural
Mother, Agippina, poisoned two husbands
including Emperior Claudius in 54
Agrippina had the Praetorian Guard proclaim 16
year old Nero emperor
In 56 (age 19) he began late night rioting in
In 59 he killed his mother
In 62 he killed his wife to marry someone else.
He began to write poetry, race chariots, play
He began to give public performances at the age
of 22 (in 59)
He desired to rebuild Rome
64 Rome Burns
The public blamed Nero.
It began the night of July 18 in the wooden
shops in the SE end of the Great Circus
The fire raged for 7 nights and 6 days
Then it burst out again and burnt 2 more parts
of the city for 3 more days.
(London’s fire of 1666 lasted 4 days; Chicago’s
fire of 1871 lasted 36 hours.)
10 of the 14 regions of the city were
destroyed. Only 2/7 of the city was
Historians blame Nero and his ambitions to
rebuild Rome as
To escape responsibility Nero blamed an already
suspicious group, Christians
Tacitus: “a vast multitude” were put to death in
the most shameful manner:
They were crucified
They were sewed up in skins of
wild beast and exposed to dogs in arena
They were covered with pitch or
oil, nailed to post to be lit for street lights
Within a year, in 65, Peter was arrested and
crucified upside down along w/ his wife
In the spring of 68 Paul was led out on the Ostian Way and
On June 9, 68 Nero committed suicide by stabbing
himself in the throat.
INSERT: “Anti Christian Logic”
90-117 Asian and
Apostle was sent to Patmos
during this persecution
Emperor Domitian persecuted Jews for refusing to
pay a poll tax for pagan temple
Since Christians were considered part of Jewish
faith they also were persecuted.
During this time the governor of Bithynia (Asia Minor)
wrote Emperor Trajan asking for advice concerning treatment of Christians. He says:
“This superstition (Christianity) had spread in the villages and rural
areas as well as in the larger cities to such an extent that the temples had
been almost deserted and the sellers of sacrificial animals impoverished.” Trajen responses to him by saying that if a
person denies being a Christian to let them go.
If they confess to being a Christian after being asked three times they
were to be killed, unless they recanted and worshipped the Roman gods.
Persecutions of Christians”
and worked with Paul. Mentioned in
to Origen he was a disciple of the apostles.
writes: “He had the preaching of
the apostles still echioing in his ears and their doctrine in front of his
to use Septuagint from Paul and Luke
wrote a letter from rome
to the Corinthians called “First Clement.
It had been referred to by other writers but was not discovered
until the 1600’s
writes after Domitian persecution about 98
writes the Corinthians because the church had overthrown the church’s
appeals to the Word of God as final authority and refers to 1 Cor. 1:10
gives testimony to: Trinity, divinity of Christ, salvation only b Christ,
necessity of repentance, necessity of faith, justification by grace, sanctification
by Holy Spirit, unity of the church, fruit of the Spirit.
is the pastor of Rome
and know no higher office
writes his book in the name of the church not in the name of his office
writes to a church of apostolic foundation with a tone of authority and
thus reveals how easily and innocent the papacy began.
years after his death this same position in the same church will take
authority and will excommunicate whole churches for much smaller
of church in Antioch
pastor with Clement in Rome, Simeon in Jerusalem, Polycarp
- Antioch was a doorway to Gentile world and so became
a seat of heretical tendencies which forced Antioch to develop sound doctrine and
was tried in Antioch before Emperor Trajen
and sent to Rome
in chains for martyrdom in the Coliseum by being thrown to the lions.
his way to Rome he wrote seven letters that
we still have: Ephesians,
Magnesians, Trallians, Romans, Philadelphians, Smyrneans, and one to
Polycarp, the Pastor in Smyrna.
are some quotes from those letters:
“I would rather die for Christ
than rule the whole earth.”
“It is glorious to go down in
the world, in order to go up into God.”
“Leave me to the beasts, that I may by them be made
partaker of God. Rather fawn upon the
beasts, that they may be to me a grave, and leave nothing of my body, that,
when I sleep, I may not be burdensome to anyone. Then will I truly be a disciple of Christ,
when the world can no longer even see my body.”
remains were brought back to Antioch.
attitude toward martyrdom exceeds the genuine apostolic resignation which
is equal willing to depart or remain.
He degenerates into morbid fanaticism.
INSERT: “The Apostolic Fathers”
the apostles and was one of John’s disciples
placed his as the bishop of Smyrna.
had trained Irenaeus and was friends with Ignatius and Papias.
was captured as an 86 year old man and burnt at the stake in Smyrna.
last days, capture, and death are recorded in the letter “The martyrdom of
roots go back to the days of Paul and John. Both seem to deal with the false
concepts in Colossians and 1 John.
tradition connects the founding of it to Simon Magus, who Peter rebukes in
sprang from the natural desire of humans to explain the origin of evil.
- Since evil can be associated with matter and
flesh, the Gnostics tried to develop a philosophical system to
disassociate God, a spirit, from evil, matter and flesh.
second question it sought to answer was the origin of man. They did this by combining Greek
philosophy and Christian theology.
The Corinthians did this and were rebuked in First Corinthians 1
the Gnostics had succeeded Christianity would have been reduced to a
was one of their main statements of faith.
The Gnostics insisted on a clear distinction between material and
spiritual and with evil and good. So God could not have created the world.
gap between the world and God was bridged by a series of emanations that
formed a hierarchy.
of these, known as Jehovah of the OT, had rebelled and created the
world. The Gnostics did not like
this OT emanation.
explain Jesus Christ they embraced a doctrine known as Docetism. Docetism teaches that since matter is
evil Jesus did not have a human body.
Either he was a phantom or the spirit of Christ came on the man
Jesus between his baptism but left before his death.
might begin with faith, but is only for the soul.
special knowledge (gnosis) that Christ exposed while here was of far
refutes gnosticism in “Against Heresies”
140 Marcion went to Rome
and embraced gnosticism and developed it.
Marcion was the first to develop the NT canon.
Native of Asia Minor
As a youth he had seen and heard Polycarp in Smyrna.
He mentions Papias frequently and must have
Became bishop of Lyons,
when the bishop died in persecution
Lyons was a
of Asia Minor
Lived in Lyons
during the persecution of 177
Took a letter to the Roman bishop Eleutherus
from the confessors
Roman Bishop Victor was complelling the Asian
churches to celebrate Easter on a different date.
Irenaeus tried to protect Asian churches from
Roman Bishops pretensions and aggression
Roman Bishop Victor cut them off from communion.
Irenaus says earlier Roman bishops didn’t demand
agreement on this issue.
Irenaus appeals to other bishops for support.
Irenaus was martyred under Emperor Septimius
Smyrna Bishop Polycarp visits Rome Bishop Anicetus. The issue comes up, is not resolved,
Polycarp departs in peace saying this is how he celebrated Easter with
the same controversy develops in Laodicea
but is dealt with in peace
Rome Bishop Victor requires the Asian churches to abandon their Easter
practices. The new Ephesian Bishop
Polycrates appeals with a letter which is still in existence today. Victor wouldn’t listen, calls them
heretics, excommunicates them and would not send them communion
elements. Irenaeus interecedw by
quoting Colossians 2:16: “The
apostles have ordered that we should, ‘Judge no one in meat or in
drink, or in respect to a feast day or a new moon or a Sabath day.’ ”
time of the Jewish Passover and the Easter fast created a violent
issue becomes complicated and is not yet cleared up
issue was purely ritualistic and involved no doctrine
much stress was laid on external uniformity
- Asia Minor’s views: Followed
Followed John and Philip’s example They celebrated the Christian for of the
Passover on Nisan 14 and at the end of the day they broke their Easter fast
with communion and the Love Feast
Church view: Appealed
to early custom of celebrating Jesus death on a Friday Celebrated
Easter always on a Sunday after the March full moon Nearly all the
churches did it this way The
Roman practice created an entire holy week of fasting to recall Lord’s
Problem to the Roman Church: Part
of the universal church was celebrating and feasting the Lord’s
resurrection while another part of the world church was still fasting his
Nicean Council of 325 established as a law for the whole church by saying: “Easter should
be celebrated on the first Sunday after the first full moon succeeding the
bernal equinox (March 21). If the
full moon occurs on a Sunday, Easter-day is the Sunday after. Easter can be anywhere from March 22 to
last trace of the “heretics” from Asia
was seen in the 500’s AD
Christian apologist trained in philosophy (Stoicism and Platonism) and
became a Christian.
became the most notable writer of this century
was born in Palestine
and searched energetically for truth as a young man in philosophical
schools. While meditating alone by
the sea side one day he was approached by an old man who exposed the
weaknesses of his thinking and pointed him to the Jewish prophets who bore
witness to Christ.
took this new faith back into the philosophical schools.
writings vigorous and earnest. They
are written under the threat of persecution and are an urgent appeal to
wrote “First Apology” to the Emperor Antoninus Pius (138-161) to
clear away prejudice and misunderstanding about Christianity.
his “Dialogue with Trypho” he recounts an actual encounter in Ephesus with a Jew
who accused Christians of breaking the Jewish law and worshipping a
man. The debate was conducted with
respect and courtesy on both sides, despite strong disagreement.
opened a school in Rome.
was martyred in Rome
INSERT: “The Arguments of the Apologists”
Pontus on the Black
Sea, Marcion arrived in Rome
made a fortune as a shipowner
father was a bishop and excommunicated him.
believed that the God of the Old Testament was different from the God and
Father of the Lord Jesus Christ.
taught that the God of the OT was unknowable and sheer justice. The God of the NT was revealed and was
loving and gracious.
church of Rome excommunicated him in 144.
Martyr said Marcion was aided by the devil to blaspheme and den that God
was the creator.
wrote “Against Marcion” about 207 and called him a formidable foe of true
stated that Jesus was notborn of a woman but suddenly appeared in the
synagogue at Capernaum
in 29 AD.
taught that since creation was not the work of the true God the body must
recognized Polycarp in Rome
in 155 and Polycarp replied, “I recognize you as the firstborn of
followers of Marcion were called Marcionites. Constantine
absolutely forbade their meeting for worship. Most were absorbed into newer heretical
teaching of Mani and Manicheism.
There were reports of them in the 400’s. The council at Trullo 692 made provision
for the reconciliation of Marcionites.
There was lingering remains as late as the 900’s.
apologist and theologian from Carthage, North Africa
in the home of a roman centurion.
a proficient lawyer.
taught public speaking and practiced law in Rome.
greatest of the church writers until Augustine.
was the first to write major works in Latin. He then was the first to use many of the
technical words common in Christian theological debates even today.
logical Latin mind developed a sound Western theology and led to the
defeat of much of the false doctrine that could not stand against his
logic and reasoning.
other great North African Latin writers would follow from him: Cyprian and
wrote in a witty and vigorous style.
He pursued all who contradicted him with sarcastic irony.
wrote the famous line, “the blood of the martyrs is the seed of the
strict moral views led him to join the Montanists around 202.
was his masterpiece where he argued that Christianity should be tolerated
Marcion” defended the use of the Old Testament by the Christian church
Praxeas” develops the doctrine of the Trinity. Tertullian had two things against
Praxeas: one, his opposition to the Montanist ‘new prophecy,’ two,
Praxeas’s view of God the Father.
church had become formal and was lead by human leadership .
man called Montanus attempted to confront the problem of a Spiritless,
opposed the rise to prominence of the bishop in the local church.
began to stress the second coming of Christ and the ministry of the Holy
his zeal he taught extreme concepts such as: inspiration was immediate and
continuous, that he himself was the paraclete that the Holy Spirit spoke
through as he had Paul and Peter
eschatology was also extravagant:
He believed that the Kingdom would come down and be set up at
and his followers followed strict asceticism: no second marriages, many
fasts, and only dry food. They
prophecied, spoke in tongues, had visions and got caught up in intese
prophetesses accompanied Montanus: Prisca and Maximilla
oracles said, “Do not hope to die in bed. . .but as martyrs.” Today tombstones in Pyrygia attest to
the boldness of the Montanist Christians.
predicted: “After me there will be no prophecy, but he End.”
had considerable influence in North Africa,
which include the conversion of Tertullian to Montanism. Tertullian allowed their strict
asceticism to influence his writings at times. He refused forgiveness for serious sins
after baptism, banned remarriage and forbid flight from persecution.
Constntinople Council in 381 condemned Montanism and said they should be
looked at like pagans
Montanist were not heretics. They
prophecies never came true.
caused a disruption as the church was trying to establish the New
Montanist are a warning to the church that they must maintain a connection
with the Spirit of God and the emotions of man while not forsaking the
doctrine and the organization of the Church.
in Alexandria, Egypt.
Leonides, was a Greek. Mother was a
father taught him the scriptures.
His mother taught him to speak and sing in Hebrew
became a student of Clement of Alexandria.
Origen was 16 his father was put in prison for being a Christian. Origen wrote him a letter asking his
father to allow no thought of his family to distract his commitment to
was put to death and his property confiscated.
Christian school in Alexandria
suffered greatly from the persecution of Emperor Severus at this
time. The teachers and leaders had
fled or died.
the age of 18 Origen had become the head of the Alexandrian Christian
had collected a very valuable library of books.
- Alexandria’s bishop
Demetrius appointed Origen to the official position in the school
sold his library for a daily annuity that he lived on for many years.
flocked to his lectures
led a simple life in order to fulfill the precepts of the gospel: Went
his one and only robe Slept
on the ground Limited
his food Limited his sleep Applied Mt.
continued for 12 happy years until he was about 30.
205 Origen writes “Against Celsus” to refute pagan criticism of
and Gentiles attended his lectures.
of his students, Heracles, helped take over some of the teaching
responsibilities. Heracles would
become the next bishop of Alexandria.
215 unusual violence broke out in Alexandria,
Eguypt and Origen fled to Caesarea
childhood friend, Alexander, was now bishop in Jerusalem and begged him to expound the
- PROBLEM: Origen was not ordained. The Alexandrian Bishop Demetrius told
Origen to return to Alexandria.
219 Origen returns to Alexandria
and began to write expositions of scripture
provide him with 7 shorthand scribes to take down his comments and the
scribes to make copies. (Ambrose
had been a Marcionite until Origen properly taught him.)
writing was original and bold.
- His “Commentary
on the Gospel of John” made an impact on interpretation.
- His “On
First Principles” made an
impact on Christian speculation.
bishop of Alexandria,
was startled by Origen’s boldness and wished to control it and his
226, Demetrius organized a synod of bishops that would not allow Origen to
stay or teach in Alexandria.
to reject Origen
went back to Caesarea and taught and
wrote for the next 20 years.
- In Caesarea he starts a new school and produced a
continual succession of distinguished students.
235-237 Origen’s work was interrupted by Emperor Maximin’s
died in this persecution
248 Origen was in contact with Emperor Philip and his wife Severa.
overthrew Emperor Philip. In 250
the persecution of Decius broke out and Emperor Decius came after Origen
since he had associated himself with Philip.
bishop of Jerusalem,
died in this persecution.
himself suffered the torture of chains, the iron collar and the rack, but
Decius dies in two years.
is set free but his health is broke and he dies at the age of 71 and us
buried in Tyre.
was rich, cultured and headed for hight government office.
became a Christian in 246.
said, “A second birth created me a new man by means of the Spirit breated
dedicated himself to celibacy, poverty and Bible study.
248 he was made bishop of Carthage, North Africa.
fled during the persecution of Emperor Decian in 250.
people stayed behind and confessed Christ.
This earned them greater spiritual prestige and the title of
had a difficult time running the church and the “confessors” by letter
while in hiding since many church leaders scorned fleeing. Cyprian had lost face.
he returned he found many who had neither confessed nor fled, but had
lapsed under persecution and denied Christ.
returned from hiding in 251.
“confessors” urged for leniency for those who “lapsed” and denied the
and the bishops fixed stricter terms for readmitting them to the church.
“lapsed” simply left the church and started their own. To oppose their action, Cyprian wrote
his most important work, “The Unity of the Church.” In this work Cyprian develops the
thought that the Spirit’s gifts of life and salvation were restricted to
the catholic (main) church. He
argued against Stephen, the bishop of Rome, that these “lapsed” people needed
to be rebaptised to reenter the mainline church after having gone to
was banished by Emperor Valerian. Cyprian
tried to hide but was captured and put to death.
bishops were in theory equal all
ministers were priest (as in OT priesthood) the
Lord’s supper was the sacrifice of the cross the
church depended for its unity on their harmony and equality
was a clear-headed administrator but a simple minded theologian.
influence on the later Western church was immense and largely harmful.
INSERT: “The Third-Century Church Fathers”
small puritanical group which split off from the church in Rome
their founder, was defeated in the election for Roman bishop in 251.
issue was how do deal with those who renounced Christ in Decius
refused to receive back anyone who had “lapsed”
was a gifted theologian, an early Latin writer.
important writing was on the Trinity.
was martyred by Emperor Valerian in 258
were theologically orthodox and spread quickly in the 250’s.
set up a rival bishop in Carthage.
built up a network of small congregations and called themselves “the pure
ones” in comparision to the other impure churches who were lax towards
joining the Novatianist from main church had to be baptized again.
Novatianist bishop was present at the Council of Nicaea in 325
main church treated them as heretics until 326 when Constantine granted them tolerance
Novatianist clergy were allowed to retain their rank if they returned to
the ‘catholic church’ around 325
time they were absorbed back into the main line (catholic) church
INSERT: “Ante-Nicene Heresies”
269 Anthony (of
Kome, Upper Egypt
of a prosperous Coptic family
269, age 20, gave away his possessions and withdrew from society to lead
an ascetic life
life of holiness gave him such a reputation that others went to live in
caves near him.
man lived as a hermit alone in his cave
285 he retired into complete isolation where he suffered his famous
305 he emerged to give his disciples a rule.
re-emerged during the Arian conflict to support Athanasius.
died at the age of 105.
main stages: 1-
ascetic practices carried on by many within the church 2-
later many withdrew from society to live as hermits 3-
many followed and lived close to these hermits and looked to them for
leadership 4- these communities
organized into communal life in a monastery setting
all were level headed like Anthony: 1-
Simeon Stylites (390-459) lived buried u to his neck for several months,
decided to achieve holiness by sitting on the top of a 60 foot pillar near Antioch for 35
years. 2- Ammoun never undressed of bathed after
he became a hermit. 3- One wandered naked for fifty years near
of Caesarea (330-379) popularized the communal type of monastic
age 27 he gave up worldly advancement.
The monks under his rule would work, pray, read the Bible, do good deeds. He discouraged extreme asceticism.
(284-313) became emperor as a strong military leader and at the end of a
century of political chaos.
285 he ended the ended the diarchy of the principate created by Caesar
Augustus in 27 BC which had the senate and the emperor sharing power. He thought only a strong monarchy could
save the empire. There was no room
of this arose the greatest of the Christian persecutions.
began with the first edicts of persecution in March of 303. It ordered: 1- the cessation of
Christian meetings 2-
the destruction of the churches
3- the deposition of church
the imprisonment of those who persist in their testimony of Christ
the destruction of the scriptures by fire
later edict ordered the accused Christians to sacrifice to the pagan gods
writes that prisons became crowded with Christians that there was no room
were punished with loss of property, exile, imprisonment, or execution by
sword or wild beasts. Some were
sent to labor camps and worked to death in the mines.
persecution that included the burning of scriptures forced the church to
decide which books were really scripture and canonical. Who wanted to risk death for a book that
was not even inspired?
in Britain in 306 Constantine was
declared emperor of the western Roman Empire
- In Rome his position
was usurped by Maxentius
- Constantine told the
account of the events before the battle in 312 to Eusebius, the church
historian. Alarmed by reports of
Maxentius’ mastery of magical arts led Constantine to pray to the ‘Supreme God’
for help. Constantine then saw a cross in the
noonday day “above the sun’ and with it the words, ‘Conquer by this.’
same night Constantine had a dream of
Christ who told him to use the sign of the Chi and the Rho (the “ch” and the “r” of the name
- Constantine then defeated Maxentius at the battle of
the Milvian Bridge.
commitment to Christianity was sincere but his understanding of the
Christian faith was far from orthodox.
- Constantine did not
even distinguish between the Father of Jesus Christ and the divine sun.
maintained the pagan high priest’s title of Pontifex Maximus.
- Constantine coins
continued to feature some of the pagan gods
- Constantine delayed
Christian baptism until the end of his life. (Although this was a custom
of the day to help one avoid committing a mortal sin.)
313 with the Edict of Milan he declared along with Licinius (the eastern
emperor) that Christianity was no longer illegal.
made the first day of the week a holiday and called it ‘the venerable day
of the Sun’ or ‘Sunday.’
months into his reign the Donatists asked Constantine to intervene in Church
affairs over a decision concerning who should be bishop. When the Donatists refused his councils
verdict Constantine threatened to go to Africa and settle things himself: “I am going to make plain to them what
kind of worship is to be offered to God. . .What higher duty have I as
emperor than to destroy error and repress rash indiscretions, and so cause
all to offer to Almighty God true religion, honest concord and due
worship?” Constantine ordered the Donatist
churches to be confiscated and
their leaders banished. Constantines efforts
were to no avail and he revoked his order.
The Donatists survived for 300 more years
bishop of Alexandria
put him in charge of one of the big churches in the city, Baucalis
- As a
pastor he found success and gained a large following with his teaching and
published “Thalia” where he
established the unity and simplicity of the eternal God and the
superiority of the Son over other created beings. The Son being created by God before time
new bishop of Alexandria,
Alexander, had began to teach what Arius thought was blasphemy. Alexander taught “as God is eternal, so
is the Son – when the Father, the Son, - the Son is present in God without
birth, ever-begotten, an unbegotten-begotten.”
of Bicomedia and Eusebius of Caesarea defended Arius
Alexander excommunicated him.
Constantine arrived in the East in 324 and attempted himself to settle
this “trifling and foolish verbal difference, the meaning of which would
be grasped only by the few.”
325 Council of Nicea
Constantine ordered this church council
was the second church council
is modern Iznik, Turkey,
a little town near the Bosporus Straits which flows between the Black Sea
and the Mediterranean Sea.
4, 325 about 300 bishops and deacons from the Eastern half of the empire
- Constantine arrived
in his imperial clothing overlaid with jewels but without his customary
train of soldiers.
- Constantine spoke
only briefly saying that “Division in the church is worse than war.”
stake was the most profound church question yet, “Who is Jesus Christ?”
was a new day for the church. Many
of the bishops and deacons had scars from previous persecution from the
emperors. A pastor from Egypt was
missing an eye. One was crippled in
both hands as a result of red-hot irons.
of the bishops were impressed with Constantine
and were willing to compromise.
young deacon from Alexandria,
Athanasius, was not willing to compromise.
Athanasius insisted that Arius’s doctrine left Christianity without
a divine Savior.
present was the church historian, friend of the emperor, and half-hearted
supporter of Arius, Eusebius.
Eusebius put forward his own creed for council approval.
council wanted something more specific and added, “True God of true God,
begotten not made, of one substance with the Father. . .”
- The expression
“one substance” was the “homo ousion.”
long debate only two bishops did not agree with “in one Lord Jesus Christ,
. . .true God of true God.”
- Constantine was
pleased thinking the issue was settled.
the next 100 years the two views of Christ, the Nicene (Athanasius’) view
and the Arian (Arius’) view battled for supremacy.
people were banished, exiled and killed as power shifted as the emperor’s
and church leadership switched.
Council of Nicea laid the cornerstone for the orthodox understanding of
next council at Chalcedon
would develop it further.
INSERT: “Church Councils”
of Jerusalem 49 Circumcision and Jewish Law
of Nicea 325 Condemn Arianism
of Constantinople 381 Settle Apollinarianism
of Ephesus 431 Nestorian Controversy; Nestorius deposed
of Chalcedon 451 Eutychian Controversy
of Constantinople II 553 Monophysites Controversy
of Constantinople III 680 Doctrine of the two wills of Christ
of Nicea II 787 Sanctioned Image Worship
of Constantinople IV 869 Final Schism
between East and West
of Rome I 1123 Decide Bishops are appointed by Popes
of Rome II 1139 Effort to heal the East and West Schism
of Rome III 1179 To Enforce Ecclesiastical discipline
of Rome IV 1215 Bidding of Innocent III
of Lyons I 1245 Settle quarrel with Pope and Emperor
of Lyons II 1274 Attempt to unite East and West
of Vienne Council 1311 Suppress
of Constance 1414-1418 Heal Papal Schism; Burn Hus
of Basal 1431-1449 Reform Church
of Rome V 1512 Another Reform Effort
of Trent 1545-1563 Counter
I 1869-1870 Declare Pope Infallible
of Vatican II 1962-1965 Effort to bring Christendom
into one Church
INSERT: “Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers”
353 Emperor Constantius
- Constantine’s three
sons: Constantine II Constans Constantius
killed hundreds of their father’s offspring (except Gallus and Julian who
were sick and a youth when their father died in 337
slew Constantine II and then was killed by a barbarian in battle
became sole emperor in 353
began a violent suppression of heathen religion: 1-
pillaged and destroyed temples 2-
gave booty to the church 3-prohibited
all sacrifices and worship of images in Rome,
Alexander, and Athens
many people became “Christian” (lip service)
was an Arian and punished those who held to Nicene orthodoxy
said at this time, “Satan, because there is no truth in him, breaks in
with axe and sword. But the Saviour is gentle, and forces no one, to whom
he comes, but knocks and speaks to the soul. . .If we open to him, he
enters; but if we will not, he departs.
For the truth is not preached by sword and dungeon, by might of an
army, but by persuasion and exhortation.
How can there be persuasion where fear of the emperor is
uppermost? How exhortation, where
the contradicter has to expect banishment and death?”
Emperor Julian the Apostate
INSERT: “Julian the Apostate”
Basil the Great
Martin of Tours
367 New Testament
Recognizes the New Testament Canon in an Easter letter
books he lists are the same as the one we recognize
Roman Bishop Damasus
381 Council of Constantinople
church now confronts the state when necessary to protect Christian
teaching and oppose evil actions of the state
is converted in 387
writings become foundational for the Middle ages
398 John Chrysostom
as “golden tongue” preacher
405 Latin Vulgate
Latin Bible becomes the standard for the next 1,000 years
Vandals in Gaul and Spain
Sacked by Alaric and the Visigoths
INSERT: “The Pelagian Controversy”
INSERT: “Major Ancient Chruch Doctrinal Controversies”
431 Council of Ephesus
432 Patrick to Ireland
as a slave in his youth
escaping and going through monastery training he returns as a missionary
are led to Christian faith.
churches are starte
451 Council of Chalcedon
confirm the orthodox teaching that Jesus was truly God and truly man and
existed in one Person
Leo the Great
the primacy of the Roman bishop, against the claims of the political
INSERT: “Development of Episcopacy in the First Five
INSERT: “Factors Contributing to the Supremacy of the
Bishop of Rome”
Attila the Hun
Vandals Capture Rome
of the Franks is converted
529 Benedict of Nursia
553 Council of Constantinople
Lombards Invade Italy
Gregory the Great
- Mission to Iona in Scotland
establishes a legendary monastic missionary center at Iona
664 Synod of Whitby
that the English church will come under the authority of Rome
680 Council of Constantinople
of the two wills of Christ
his careful and important work “Ecclesiastical History of the English
Martel stops Muslim invaders threatening Europe