Church History 1518-1960 www.generationword.com
Breaks with Rome
95 theses the Dominican monk Tetzel tried to silence Luther with all the
power of the Dominicans and with help of the Augustinian order
reformation was then early called a squabble of monks.
was ordered to argue his position in a debate with his own order of
- Result: More monks accepted Luther’s ideas
1518 Diet of Augsburg
met with Cardinal Cajetan who demanded Luther to retract
Only when proven by scripture
Denied pope final authority in faith
Denied sacraments had any power without faith.
1519 Debate with
cleverly forced Luther to admit
fallibility of a council
b) his unwillingness to accept popes decisions
c) That many of Hus’ ideas were valid
1520 Luther decides
to go to German People
publishes three writings:
a) “Address to German Nobility”
it was an attack on the hierarchy of the Catholic Church
Luther used scripture to demolish three strengths of church: 1- Popes authority over temporal powers
Pope alone could interpret scripture
Only pope could call a council
Luther proved with scripture these four things:
all believers were priest
Pope should not interfere with temporal affairs
all believers could interpret scripture
believers could choose their ministers
b) “Babylonian Captivity
* Luther challenged the sacramental
system of Roman Church
c) “The freedom of Christian Man”
Attacked the theology of the Roman Church
had attacked the Hierarchy, the sacraments and the theology of the Roman
Catholic Church in these three books to the German people.
was appealing his nation for a national reform.
June 1520 Pope
Leo X issued the Bull resulting in excommunication of Luther
books where burned
burned Leo’s bull
1521 Diet of Worms
went under protection of Frederick the elector of Saxony and founder of Wittenberg
was told to recant
said only with scripture or reason
said, “Here I stand, so help me God.”
his return to Wittenberg
his friends kidnapped him and took him to the Wartburg castle until 1522
the diet issued an order to seize Luther and hand him over.
banned his writings
translates German Bible
used Erasmus’ GNT to complete his German translation
set the standard for the German language for years
also wrote “On Monastic Vows” where he urged monks and nuns to repudiate
their wrongful vows, to leave the cloister and marry.
Prophets arrive at Wittenburg
Luther was hidden in the Wartburg castle Nicholas Storch and Markus
Stubner showed up in Wittenburg.
claimed to be prophets
began preaching the Anabaptists’ ideas
taught the kingdom
of God would soon
followers would have special revelations
risked his life, left the castle and returned to Wittenberg to preach 8 fiery sermons.
these sermons he:
defeated the prophets
stressed the authority of the Bible
stressed the need for gradual change in the church
1535 Luther breaks
completely with the Anabaptist movement
radical wing of the reformation lost confidence in Luther
rejects the Anabaptist extreme views
humanist and Erasmus (their leader) broke with Luther when they saw he was
breaking with Rome
German peasants became hostile to Luther (1525) when he opposed the
the peasants had applied his teaching of individual priesthood to the
civil authorities and revolted against the government.
1531 The protestant
princes organized forming the Schmalkaldic League
agreed to defend their faith by war if needed
would not need to until 1546
1535 The Lutheran
order of ordination
official ecclesiastical break with Rome
1546 Luther dies
1555 Peace of Augsburg
Lutheranism on a basis of legal equality with Roman Catholicism in Germany.
prince would determine the religion of his territory
1555-1580 Lutheranism was marred by internal doctrinal controversy
were over issues that Luther and Melanchthon differed
main issue was the place of preaching the law
Luther preached the Law as a means of revealing men’s sinfulness
Others said only the gospel should be preached
George Major contended good works were important part of but not means
Luther’s followers said this was a return to the Roman doctrine of
salvation by faith and works
German Princes realized the divisions caused political and religious
in 1577 they began the process of establishing doctrine in the “Formula of Concord” and
published it in 1580
Lutheran theologians produced “The Book of Concord”
disputes made the Lutherans very conscious of the importance of doctrine
emphasis led to cold, scholarly orthodoxy that ignored the subjective
Pietistic movement arose in the 1600’s as a reaction to this.
The Radical Reformation
Zwingli’s reformation in Switzerland was closely associated
with the Anabaptist
Anabaptist means “baptized again” or “the re-baptizers”
1) Absolute authority
of the Bible
2) Everything had to
be proved in scripture
3) Was a humanist and
4) As a humanist he
believed that Socrates and Plato would be in heaven as well as many Roman Catholics
predestination to salvation but, only those who heard and rejected the gospel in unbelief were predestined to
6) Lord’s supper
symbolic and faith was the essential element
7) Lord’s supper was
“commemorative” rather than a “repetition” of the atonement.
appeared in Switzerland
insistence on the Bible as the basis for teaching of the preachers
encouraged the rise of Anabaptist concepts
Conrad Grebel (1498-1526)
of Swiss Anabaptist movement
education from Vienna and Paris
– broke with Zwingli
council ordered Grebel to stop having Bible studies
had taught that infant baptism had no biblical basis but when he realized
it was too radical for many to be re-baptized (ana-baptist) and his
movement would be too slow, he gave up his earlier stance.
radical Anabaptists opposed state control
debated them at first, but turned to fines and exile when that failed.
1535, Anabaptist were nonexistent in Zurich
because of cruel treatment and fleeing.
education with doctor of theology while studying under John Eck, Luther’s
1525 Hubmaier and 300 others were baptized by pouring
fled to Austria and
then was banished to Moravia
- In Moravia he began to
lead those who had fled from the Zwinglian persecution
of Moravians became Anabaptists
Hubmaier was burnt at the stake
wife was drowned in the Danube by the
Separation of church and state
Authority of the Bible
Baptism of believers
Radical Fringes of the Anabaptist
the many sound believers in the movement
- The Zwickau prophets (i.e.: 1522 in Wittenberg vs. Luther)
rebellion by Anabaptist alienated Luther
socialism and selling of property to aid poor
Melchior Hoffman arrived in Strasbourg
to await the Millennium in 1533
Matthys, the baker, replaced Hoffman.
Matthys though he was Enoch.
was killed in fighting and his wife married John Leyden. Leyden
had 15 wives. Polygamy was
practiced due to the excessive number of women.
arose from the common goods for the community (based on communal pattern
of early church in Acts) and fanatical anticipation of the coming kingdom.
catholic bishop recaptured Strasbourg
and executed the Anabaptist leaders.
Persecution drove them to Hungary, Ukraine,
and South Dakota
These are know today as Hetterites
and practice agrarian communalism on a voluntary basis
Menno Simons (1496-1560)
sane leader in the Netherlands
avoided the chaos and confusion of the Munster Anabaptist
– Simons gave u priesthood to embrace Anabaptist
avoid “Anabaptist” stigma they took up name “brethren.
“brethren” became the Mennonites of today.
insisted that all believers had the right to interpret the Bible as literal and
different Anabaptist groups with slight variations.
notary by profession
Protestantism in the 1540’s
a leader of the protestant movement in Scotland
was Edward VI of England’s
chaplain but fled when Mary Tudor succeeded him.
in Geneva. There he met and was influenced by John
to Scotland in 1559 to
reform the Scottish
Calvinist lines, but clashed often with Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots.
she was overthrown in 1567 Knox’s reforms triumph
the Scot and ScotIrish immigrants came to the U.S. during the Colonial
period they brought with them the church that John Knox established in
Knox’s Scottish Protestantism, influenced by John Calvin, became the
into the Chur4ch of England
preacher in Lincoln
the Church of England in 1606
a minister to a group of Separatists
the newly emerging ‘Baptist’ principle of believers’ baptism
first baptized himself and then the others in Amsterdam.
also baptized Thomas Helwys the founder of the first Baptist church on
Pietism and Methodism
1780 Robert Raikes
first Sunday school for children
1793 William Carey
Parliament Abolishes Slave Trade
1816 African Methodist Episcopalian
1800’s American Bible
1830 John Darby
start the Plymouth Brethren
1830 Charles Finney
1855 D.L. Moody
a successful shoe salesman
a Sunday school in the slums in 1858
became a church in 1863
Sunday school teacher conventions
on a preaching tour in Britain
from 1872-18175 with Ira Sankey and received enthusiastic responses.
several in the U.S. and
again in Britain.
a school for women in 1879
a school for men in 1881.
what would become known as Moody Bible Institute in 1889
1869-1870 Vatican I
1906 Azusa Street
of modern Pentecostal movement
Fundamentals” are published and distributed
begins the Fundamentalist movement
1900’s C.S. Lewis
1949 Billy Grahm
1948 World Council
to bring Christendom into one church
1960 Beginning of
the Modern Charismatic movement