- a summary of the book of Galatians from Gantt’s book entitled
278-277 BC Gauls
(Celtics) of Southern Europe left home and migrated to
state became known as
Amyntas, the last independent ruler of
During the days of Paul the term
1) Geographically the territory in the Northern
part of central
2) Politically it designated the varied extent
North Galatia included Pessinus,
North – was still Gauls, shepherds, little commerce and few roads.
South – was
full of flourishing cities, constant commerce.
The main highways ran through
Greek rulers had planted colonies of Jews and Greeks along these highways.
Caesars had continued to plant colonies to secure the roads
for the legions of
Paul established churches in the capitals of the Roman provinces:
Up until Paul the church was spread by believers fleeing persecution
Paul set up organized methods of spreading the gospel
Paul sailed to Perga
Took highway to Pisidian Antioch
highway continued into
intention appears to be to take the road into
(He could have gone by sea but the autumn seas are too rough)
If he had
planned to go through
his second trip.
Note: Galatians 4:13
Religion in Southern Galatian cities was more oriental than Greek and involved degraded sensuous worship
Greek philosophy and Roman morality demanded higher expectations from human’s duty and government
Jewish synagogues had spread into these areas and gave an alternative option that included truth & holiness
Gentiles did not embrace the
Paul’s message include faith in Christ, deliverance from the corrupt world system along with Jewish ethics.
It was the salvation of the Gentile world, but the undoing of Judaism
These Galatians were not Gauls (as in
highways of commerce and government.
CROSS Stephen Paul James Paul’s 1st Jerusalem Paul’s 2nd GALATIANS Paul
Martyred Saved Mart. Journey Council Journey WRITTEN in Rm
30 33 35 44 47 49 50 52 60
Blood sacrifice is not salvation
Abel was saved by faith. Cain replaced it with his own merit and good works.
Abel’s faith leaped centuries to the cross and was declared righteous
History is filled with people of :
2) Rituals with out Reality
3) Human Merit
1) Some sacrificed in expression of their faith
2) Most went through a ritual with no faith to receive the grace of salvation.
They believed they were saved by the institution of ritual.
3) Many developed a system of rules fro the Law to produce salvation by works.
The Galatians were inspired by Judiazers to hook up with the third one. Salvation was for those
who earned it.
The letter of Hebrews was an attack on those who were inspiring salvation by observation of the ritual of
Ritual without reality is false doctrine aimed at the Jew
Human Merit is false doctrine aimed at the Gentile.
Judaizers in Philippians 3:2-6:
“Dogs” – is a Greek word of reproach among Jews and Gentiles.
“Evil Doers” – does not merely mean they do evil but come against gospel
“Mutilators of Flesh” is the same Greek word used in LXX to refer to pagan religions
inflicting cuts, etc. in their bodies.
Believers are said to worship in the Spirit. Judaizers worship in the Flesh.
“Have Confidence” is literally Greek, “have come to a settled persuasion” meaning they
have settled confidence in human attainment.
Judaizers depended on these elements for divine acceptance:
1) Circumcision – a marking that showed a person was a member of the Chosen People of Israel.
This rite never had anything to do with personal salvation.
Judaizers made it a prerequisite for salvation
2) Of the
3) Ecclesiastical position in the religious system
(Paul, himself was a Pharisee and said it meant nothing.)
4) Observance of the Law
They were made righteous by obeying the Law
In Philippians 3:4-7 Paul is saying that he has every advantage if he would preach Judaism. But he considers it worthless.
Romans 4:1-8 Salvation is not by works.
Romans 4:9-12 Salvation is not by ordinances (circumcision)
Romans 4:13-25 Salvation is not by obeying the Law
Galatians were observing the Jewish feast (Galatians 4:10)
The Judaizers preached Jesus of Nazareth as Messiah but in an inaccurate way. Paul refers to this in Philippians 1:14-18.
1)The Judaizers were one group of
The other group of unsaved
Both groups were not part of the true
Judaizers were personal enemies of Paul and of his gospel. They attacked his apostolic ministry.
1) Paul was not one of the original 12
2) Paul had not heard Jesus voice
3) Paul had not seen Jesus
4) Paul had not attended Christ’s ministry
5) Paul had not been “sent out” by Christ like the others
6) Paul had not received his gospel by revelation
Parts of the Book of Galatians:
Chapters 1 & 2 Paul’s personal story used to defend his apostleship and so defend his message.
Chapters 3 & 4 Doctrinal attack on Judaizers and their false message
Chapters 5 & 6 Emphasizing the ministry (work) of the Holy Spirit in contrast to work of the flesh
for Writing the Book
The Galatians do not appear to have written a letter to Paul (for he does not answer it in his letter.)
Paul does not appear to hear rumors or personal reports (for he does not question the truthfulness)
Paul has not recently been in Galatia to see first hand (for it appears from the letter things were OK when he left.)
Most likely Paul was approached in