by Galyn Wiemers
539 BC Cyrus overthrew
Cyrus allowed any Jews to return & rebuild temple Ezra 1:2
Altar built and the foundation laid
comes to Daniel after 3 weeks of fasting Daniel
529 Cambyses (Cyrus son) succeeds Cyrus , opposition to Jews Ezra 4:1-5
521 Darius Hystaspes takes over the throne Haggai 1:2
Darius rejects opposition to building;
orders Samaritans to stay away Ezra 5-6
520 Ministry of Haggai. Haggai 1:1 on Aug. 29, Haggai 2:1 on Oct.17
Ministry of Zechariah. Zechariah 1:1 Oct/Nov
Resume building temple Ezra 5
518 Dec. 7, 518, Zechariah 7
Interlude of 31 years: 31 years
Time of ESTHER
485 Xerxes begins to reign;
Samaritans take this chance to file a complaint Ezra 4:6
says stop rebuilding of the rebellious city,
Xerxes vast display of wealth and banquets Esther 1
478/9 Esther goes to Xerxes and becomes Queen in Dec/Jan Esther 2
474 Esther’s fifth year as queen. On April 17 the execution date set by lot Esther 3:7
473 Jews are to be killed on March 7 Esther 3:12-14
464-458? Artaxerxes says to stop rebuilding the rebellious city Ezra 4:7-23
Artaxerxes says “this city will not be rebuilt until I so order” Ezra 4:21 (Dn.9:25)
In Artaxerxes’ seventh year he issues the decree to rebuild and restore Ezra 7:12-26 (Dn.9:25)
People assemble on Dec. 19;
The investigation of intermarriage begins Ezra 10:9-16
457 Committee ends a three month investigation by Mar/Apr Ezra 10:17
NEHEMIAH leaves Susa w/ King Artaxerxes
445 Nehemiah leaves to rebuild the walls (Artaxerxes 20th year) Nehemiah 1
Mar/Apr 445, no walls Nehemiah 2:1
Opposition to building walls Nehemiah 4
Oct. 2, 445, walls completed in 52 days Nehemiah 6:15
Oct. 8, 445, Ezra reads Law to public for
first time in thirteen years Nehemiah 8:2
Oct. 9, 445, People celebrate the Feast
of Tabernacles Nehemiah 8;13
433 Nehemiah is recalled to Artaxerxes after a 12 year absence Nehemiah 5:14;13:6
432 Malachi written
--------about 458 years of silence from God concerning his revelation -----
26 AD Jesus public ministry begins. Daniel’s 70 weeks
years) are interrupted. They began w/ Artaxerxes’ decree to restore and
458 BC + 26 AD = 484 (Daniel’s “69 7’s”, 483 until Messiah)
64 AD Fire
67 Paul Beheaded by Nero
150 Justin Martyr Writes “Apology” – The philosooher convets to Christianity and became the first apologist to explain the faith as reasonable.
156 Polycarp Martyred – The 86 year old had been
a student of the Apostle John. He is
burnt at the stake in
177 Irenaeus becomes Bishop in
196 Tertullian begins to Write- An African who wrote in Latin which became the language of theology to describe the Trinity. He joined a charismatic/puritan group in 206 and began to look for the return of Christ. Famous Quote: “The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church.”
205 Origen begins to Write – In Alexandria, Egypt he became president of a Bible school at the age of 18 due to the martyrdom of all the other leaders including his Father. He had a long writing career.
Writes “On the Unity of the Church” – A wealthy, cultured Pagan gave his
possessions to the poor, vowed chastity.
Became bishop of
270 Anthony Begins Life as a Hermit – His original idea sparks the monastic movement.
325 Council of Nicea – Due to Arius’ teaching that Jesus was divine but not God a deadly debate broke out and was the focal point of this council.
367 Athanasius’s Letter Recognizes New Testament Canon Books- He used two standards: 1) Apostolic Origin, 2) The use of the writings in the churches.
385 Bishop Ambrose Defies the Empress – Church power uses threats loss church membership, loss of communion, loss of salvation to manipulate the political world.
387 Augustine is converted
Chrysostom Becomes Bishop of
405 Jerome Completes Latin Vulgate- The Latin translation that became the standard text of the church until the reformation in the 1500’s
451 Columba goes to
I becomes Pope. He asked for
military troops to protect
800 Charlemagne Crowned Emperor-He united an empire in the West, provided leadership and protection, and did not see any reason to submit to the pope.
1095 First Crusade launched by Pope Urban II
1173 Waldensians founded by Peter Waldo
1215 Fourth Lateran Council ruled that every baptized person must annually make confession to a priest and take communion. The doctrine of transubstantiation was made official. There was only one true church. Disagreeing with the church was no longer an option. The state could punish heretics and confiscate their property. Jews were required to wear special identifying badges and Christians could not do business with the Jews, in time placing the Jews in the ghettos.
1252 Pope Innocent IV authorized torture as a means of getting information and confessions out of people in cases of heresy.
1273 Thomas Aquinas Completes huge Theological work called “Summa Theologica” that becomes the theological base of Christianity
1321 Dante Completes the Divine Comedy
1380 Wycliffe Oversees The Translation of the Bible into English
Hus is burnt at the Stake by the Church for
asserting that Christ alone is the head of the church, that God alone can
forgive sin, that the pope could not establish
doctrine apart from the Bible.
Influenced by Wycliffe he lifted Biblical preaching to an important
place with the church service. He
challenged the worldliness of the church leaders by comparing them to Christ:
They rode a horse, Christ walked. They
had their feet kissed, Christ washed the disciples feet. His nation of
1456 Johann Gutenberg’s Printing Press produces the first printed Bible. A new age of communication has opened up.
of Spanish Inquisition- The church turned those who did not agree with
their doctrines over to be killed. They
would torture people until they turned others in or confessed they to taught against the “accepted” church teachings. The Church could confiscate property of the
condemned. The Protestants took hold of
1512 Michelangelo Completes Sistine Chapel Ceiling
1517 Martin Luther Posts his 95 Theses
1523 Zwingli Leads Swiss Reformation
1525 Anabaptist Movement Begins- For some people the reformation was not moving fast enough back to the first century church of scripture. Lutherans and members of the Swiss Reformation were still caught in church hierarchy. The conflict that surfaced was infant baptism. On January 21, 1525
the church order them to cease disputation. That cold, snowy evening the rebels went out rebaptized the adults. They were called Anabaptist, or “rebaptizer” by the church. They would often interrupt Protestant church meetings and refused to go to war for their nation. The Mennonites and Brethren churches are descendants of this group.
1536 John Calvin Publishes “The Institutes of the Christian Religion”
1545 Council of Trent Begins-In response to the Protestants acquisitions and masses of people leaving, this 18 year meeting abolished indulgences, and the clergy were exhorted to “avoid even the smallest faults.” But they restated the Catholic doctrine and rejected the Protestant claim of only two of the seven sacraments. They rejected the reformed teaching that a person could know that they were justified. They reaffirmed transubstantiation (bread and wine became Christ). Church services still could not be in the common languages but had to be in Latin. And “Fearing what would happen if every plowboy could indeed read the Scriptures for himself, the council again said the church alone could adequately interpret Scripture and refused the use of the Bible in the languages for the people. Only the Latin Vulgate was accepted.
Bartholomew’s Day Massacre- The Queen of France,
Catherine de Medici, ordered the execution of all Protestant leaders in
1608 First Baptist Baptized by John Smith
1611 Publication of the King James Bible
1620 Pilgrims sign Mayflower Compact
1648 Society of Friends Founded by George Fox
1678 John Bunyan’s “The Pilgrims Progress” is published
Great Awakening under Jonathan Edwards – Believing in Calvin’s doctrine of
election he believed God chooses whom he will save,
Edwards insisted that pastors in the
1738 John Wesley’s Conversion – John joined his brothers home Bible study they called “Holy Club” that searched for holiness. This became the Methodists.
1780 Robert Raikes begins Sunday School
Carey Sails for
1807 Slave Trade Abolished by vote of British Parliament
1816 African Methodist Episcopal Church Founded by Richard Allen
1830 Charles G. Finney’s Urban Revivals Begin
1830 John Nelson Darby helps start the Plymouth Brethren. Darby was the first to teach the doctrine of the rapture of the church.
Taylor arrives in
1854 Soren Kierkegaard Publishes attacks on Christendom – He became the father of “existentialism” which gained prominence in the 20th century. He is responsible for much of the subjectivity of modern theology.
Spurgeon becomes Pastor in
1855 Dwight L. Moody’s conversion
1857 David Livingstone Publishes Missionary Travels
1865 Salvation Army Founded by William Booth
1870 Papal Infallibility proclaimed doctrine by Pope Pius IX
1910 Fundamentalist Movement launched by the Publication of “The Fundamentals”
1919 Karl Barth’s “Commentary on Romans” is published
1921 First Christian Radio Program
1948 World Council of Churches is formed
1949 Billy Graham’s Los Angeles Crusades
1960 Modern Charismatic Movement begins
Luther King, Jr., leads March on
The History of the English Bible
1250 AD Cardinal Hugo places chapter divisions into scripture
Years later Athias adds OT verses and Robert Stevens adds NT
1350 ca Scholars, like Wycliffe, are unfamiliar with original Hebrew and Greek languages. All translating is from Latin to English
1375-6 John Wycliffe writes “On Divine Dominion” and “On Civil Dominion” and declares that all people are under God. States that all political/religious authority should live righteous or lose their rule and possessions. Wycliffe is condemned for these views
1377 Pope condemns Wycliffe.
Wycliffe condemns the church’s rituals, ceremonies, and doctrine not found in the Bible. He says Christians are saved by divine grace. People are responsible for themselves and it is then required that they have access to the scriptures.
1380 Wycliffe decides the best way to fight corrupt church is to give everyone a Bible. Wycliffe’s English New Testament translation from the Latin Vulgate is released (not printed)
1382 Wycliffe’s English Old Testament is complete
dies of a stroke. In about 35
years, around 1420, the church is still so upset with Wycliffe they have his
body dug up and burned and his ashes thrown in the
1388 John Pruvey revises Wycliffe’s English translation
1425ca The Renaissance bring new interest to the study of the classical writings. An interest and need to study Greek and Hebrew follow.
Nicholas brings Codex Vaticanus to the
Tyndale graduates from
1516 Erasmus publishes his Textus Receptus. Erasmus used 5 Greek New Testament manuscripts:
1) 11th century MSS of Gospels, Acts, Epistles
2) 5th century MSS of Gospels
3) 12th –14th century of Acts and Epistles
4) 15th century of Acts and Epistles
5) 12th century of Revelation
-He also used Latin copies to fill in the gaps.
1517 Martin Luther posts his 95 theses on October 31
1519 2nd Edition of Textus Receptus with revised Greek text.
1522 3rd Edition of Textus Receptus now includes 1 Jn5:7 that Erasmus did not want and had omitted
Martin Luther makes a German translation from Erasmus’1516 text.
1523 Tyndale goes to
1524 Tyndale goes to
1525 Tyndale finishes the first English translation
directly from a Greek text. He used
Erasmus’ 1516 Textus Receptus.
1527 The fourth edition of Textus Receptus is finished. It includes along with theGreek, the Latin Vulgate and Erasmus’s translation into Latin
1535 The fifth edition of Textus Receptus is finished
6, Tyndale is strangled and burnt by
“Lord, open the King of England’s eyes.” This prayer is almost immediately answered. . .
1537 King Henry VIII breaks ties with the pope and orders royal funds used to print Miles Coverdale’s English Bible. Henry did not know Coverdale’s work was simply the finishing of Tyndale’s OT work. It was printed along with Tyndales NT.
This Bible becomes the first English Bible Authorized for public use. It is called “TheGreat Bible”
Henry VIII changes his mind along with parliament and makes it a crime to
use an English Bible with out a licensed person.
1553 (Father Ephream uses some old vellum in a Syrian Monestary to record sermons by erasing the GNT MSS from 400’s)
1568 “Bishop’s Bible” English church leaders realize the “Geneva Bible” is a better translation than the Great Bible. The Great Bible is revised and called “Bishop’s Bible.” This became the main Bible until the “King James”
de Medici of
1611 King James Bible is finished using “Textus Receptus” as the Greek Text
Alexandrinus, Brought to
1700 John Mills produces an improved “Textus Receptus”
1730 Bengel’s Greek New Testament deviates from Erasmus’
Textus Receptus due to Codex Alexandrinus
1750 Textus Receptus itself begins to change
1809 Napoleon takes Pope and the Vatican Library into exile. Someone takes note of some ancient manuscripts on parchment.
1831 Lachman’s New Greek New Testament text is based on Manuscripts from 300’s
student in the back stacks of the French National Library in
remembers seeing the Codex Vaticanus in the
1844 Tischendorf discovers Codex Sinaiticus in a monestary at Mt.Sinia and saves it from the fire. It is an almost complete Bible MSS from 350 AD
1845 Tregelles memorizes Codex Vaticanus as the pope gave him permission to read it for a few hours a day, but could not take notes, use paper or pen, and could not remove it. He read it and memorized it in all three languages while guards observed him.
He would return to his room each night and write it out. By the end of the summer he had a copy of the text of Codex Vaticanus.
1849 Henry Alford compiles his Greek New Testament Text
1857 Tregelles begins publishing his GNT text between 1857-1872 that he memorized from Codex Vaticanus
is very upset with Tregelles’ work. The pope reacts by having Codex Vaticanus photographed and released to the public. This manuscript had been available at the
1860’s By now there are three very good Greek New Testament Text that surpass the Textus Receptus:
1)Tregelles’ 2) Tischendorf’s 3) Westcott and Hort’s
1871 John Nelson Darby, Plymouth Brethren, made a new translation into English using mainly Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus called New Translation Bible.
1872 J.B. Rotherham publishes a translation of Tregelles text, in which he attempted to reflect the emphasis inherent in the Greek text. This was The Emphasized Bible.
1881 Westcott and Hort release their GNT text
King James is revised. They attempt to make each Greek word same in English.
1900 Oxyrhynchos Papyri found. 2000 stuffed crocodiles are found containing a library of papyri from the first century that include many daily documents but also Greek grammars, etymologies and much more. This is a turning point in Greek studies.
1901 American Standard Version is released by the American scholars who had joined the 65 British scholars in 1870 to revise the King James and form the English Revised version.
1902 The Twentieth Century New Testament 20 men and women worked to produce a smooth-flowing easy to read translation.
Weymouth published The New Testament in Modern Speech.
1913 James Moffiatt, a Scottish scholar published The New Testament: A New Translation. Unfortunately it was based on Soden’s Greek New Testament text that is now considered defective.
J. Goodspeed, a professor of New Testament at the
1927 Adolf Deissman writes “Light From the Ancient East” after 20 years of study of the papyri of Oxyrhynchos.
19, the Chester Beatty Papyri from 90’s-200’s AD are purchased from a
1933 Russian Communist, who see no value but cash in Codex Sinaiticus, sell it to Great Britian.
1947 Dead Sea Scrolls discovered
1952 The English Revised and the American Standard Version were accurate but hard to read. New manuscript finds demanded a revision of the Greek Text. The result was the Revised Standard Version generally based on Masoretic Text for the OT (1952) and the 17th edition of Nestle Text for the NT (1946). It was a revision which sought to preserve all that is best in the English Bible. It was well received by Protestants and son became their standard text. Evangelicals and fundamentals rejected it mainly because of Isaiah 7:14, “Look, a young woman is with child and whall bear a son.” It did not use the word “virgin.”
1954 Bodmer Papyrus published
1961 The New English Bible, it was to be a fresh translation in modern idiom (though extremely British) of the original languages. This was not a revision. They produced readings from different text never before produced in English.
Living Bible, Kenneth Taylor’s paraphrase of the NT Epistles.
1966 Good News for Modern Man (NT) Published by the American Bible Society. Promoted and made affordable sold more than 35,000,000 copies in six years. Influenced by the linguistic theory of dynamic equivalence
1971 New American Standard, this is a revision of the American Standard Version (1901). The popularity of the American Standard Translation was failing. 32 Scholars who believed in a literal translation prepared a new revision. Very good study Bible but hard to read and 30 years behind in the area of the text.
1976 Due to the success of the Good News Bible NT of 1966 the entire Bible was done: The Good News Bible: Today’s English Version.
International Version, a completely new rendering of the original languages
done by an international group of more than 100 scholars. It is an excellent thought-for-thought
translation in contemporary English.
Scholars from U.S. Canada,
The NT was finished in 1973 and the OT in 1978. Since 1987 the NIV has outsold the KJ, a feat never accomplished by any other translation.
1979 Novum Testamentum Graece – 1
1982 New King James
1985 New International Version revised
1986 New Jerusalem Bible
Novum Testamentum Graece – 2, corrections had been made
1989 New English Bible revised
1990 New Revised Standard
2 Timothy 4:18 “The Lord will rescue me.”
Proverbs 16:7 “he makes even his enemies live at peace with him.”
Proverbs 24:16 “A righteous man falls seven times, he rises again.”
Isaiah 41:10 “I will strengthen you and help you.”
Matthew 21:22 “You will receive whatever you ask for in prayer.”
Ephesians 3:20 “. . .Him who is able to do immeasurably more. . .”
Philippians 4:19 “My God will meet all your needs.”
Deuteronomy 33:27 “The eternal God is your refuge, . . .everlasting arms
Psalms 9:9 “The Lord is a refuge for the oppressed, a stronghold.”
Psalms 23:4 “Even though I walk through the valley . . .fear no evil
Psalms 34:4 “I sought the Lord. . .He delivered me from all my fears
Psalms 34:19 “. . .many troubles, . . the Lord delivers him from them
Psalms 37:23,24 “though he stumble he will not fall.”
Psalms 37:25 “I have never seen the righteous forsaken.”
Psalms 46:1 “God is our refuge and strength, an ever present help
Psalms 50:15 “I will deliver you, and you will honor me.”
Psalms 55:22 “Cast your cares on the Lord & he will sustain you.”
Psalms 147:3 “He heals the broken hearted & binds up their wounds
Proverbs 12:13 “A righteous man escapes trouble.”
Proverbs 3:5,6 “Trust in the Lord with all your heart. . .paths straight
Nahum 1:7 “He cares for those who trust in him.”
Matthew 10:29,30 “Even the very hairs of your head are all numbered.”
Matthew 11:28 “Come to me. . .I will give you rest.”
Romans 8:28 “In all things God works for the good of those who. . .
Mark 11:24 “Whatever you ask for in prayer, believe that you have
John 15:7 “. . .ask whatever you wish, and it will be given you.”
John 16:23 “My Father will give you whatever you ask in my name
John 16:24 “Ask and you will receive, & your joy will be complete
Matthew 7:7-8 “Ask and it will be given to you; seek and you will find
Luke 1:37 “For nothing is impossible with God.”
Matthew 17:20 “You can say to this mountain, “Move. . and it will . . .
Matthew 17:20 “Nothing will be impossible for you.”
Matthew 21:22 “If you believe, you will receive whatever you ask
Psalms 34:10 “Those who seek the Lord lack no good thing.”
Psalms 103:2-5 “Who forgives all your sins and heals all your diseases
1 Corinthians 9:8,11 “In all things at all times, having all that you need
3 John 2 “Enjoy good health . .even as your soul is getting along
Deuteronomy 31:8 “The Lord himself goes before you . . .will not leave
Isaiah 30:18 “The Lord longs to be gracious to you. . . .wait for him
Psalms 68:20 “From the Sovereign Lord comes escape from death
Matthew 6:25 “Do not worry about your life. . .eat or drink. . .clothes.
Matthew 6:33 “Seek first his kingdom. . .all these things will be given
Hebrews 1:14 “Are not all angels ministering spirits sent to serve
Hebrews 13:5 “Never will I leave you; never will I forsake you.”
Hebrews 13:6 “The Lord is my helper; I will not be afraid.”
Hebrews 13:6 “What can man do to me?”
John 14:27 “Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid
John 16:33 “In this world you will have trouble. . .I have overcome
Psalms 138:8 “The Lord will fulfill his purpose for me.”
1 Samuel 17:47 “For the battle is the Lord’s”
Philippians 4:13 “I can do everything through him. . .”
Romans 8:37 “In all these things we are more than conquerors.”
1 Peter 2:24 “By his wounds you have been healed.”
1 John 5:4 “Everyone born of God overcomes the world.”
Revelation 12:11 “They overcame him by the blood of the lamb.”
1 John 4:4 “The one who is in you is greater than the one in world
2 Timothy 1:7 “For God did not give us a spirit of timidity. .but power
Psalm 91:9,10 “No harm will befall you, no disaster will near your. . .
Psalms 23:1 “The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not be in want.
Philippians 2:13 “For it is God who works in you to will and to act
1 John 5:14,15 “If we ask anything according to his will, he hears us. We know that we have what we asked of him.”
Point #1: Christianity is not blind faith or intellectual suicide.
Faith in Christianity is based on evidence and God has always intended it to be that way.
“You shall know the truth and the truth will make you free.” John 8:32
“Love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul and with all your mind.”
Point #2: It is not how great you believe something that makes it true, but believing something that is true makes it great.
Jesus is the real object of our faith. The value of the Christian faith is not in the one believing, but in the one who is believed in.
Point #3: The difference between Greek mythology and potential Christian mythology is that similar events in Christianity happened to real, historical flesh and blood individuals. Moses and the historical Egyptians, Samson and the real Philistines, Jesus and the well documented Romans.
* All the ancient myths have been exposed long ago. It is common to see the modern secular world still trying to undermine Christianity.
* Myths never claim to have an eyewitness.
The Bible does claim to have eyewitnesses:
2 Peter 1:16 1 John 1:1-3 Luke 1:1-3
Acts 1:1-3 1 Cor.15: 6-8 John 20:30
Acts 10:39-42 1 Peter 5:1
*When the apostles preached they appealed to the public to recall the events they had seen:
Acts 2:22 Acts 26:24-28
“Apologetics” comes from the Greek word apologia, or “apologia.” It means “defense.” It was used to describe the argument of defense in court during a judicial interrogation. It describes giving an answer to the skeptical, abusive inquiries.
apologia is used in 1 Peter 3:15 and translated as “answer” in the NIV.
“But in your hearts set apart Christ as Lord. Always be prepared to give an answer to everyone who asks you to give the reason for the hope that you have. But do this with gentleness and respect.”
Also: Acts 22:1; Colossians 4:6; Philippians 1:7; 1:16; Jude 3
“We can not pander to a man’s intellectual arrogance,
but we must cater to his intellectual integrity.”
“Christian faith goes beyond reason but never against it.”
“I know whom I have believed.” 2 Timothy 1:12
The heart cannot rejoice in what the mind rejects.
A presupposition is simply an idea that is presupposed which means to suppose or assume an idea before any evidence is assembled or presented
Everyone tends to live life with certain presuppositions. A person’s religion and their philosophy for life should be carefully investigated.
Many Christians and churches are filled with unknown and indefensible presuppositions concerning their own faith. Likewise, the secular public also has their presuppositions in which they study history, and all other subjects.
These philosophical presuppositions are:
1) There is no God
2) There are no miracles
3) We live in a closed system (what you see is all there is)
4) There is no supernatural
These presuppositions are the beginning of the secular world’s evaluation of Christianity. The presuppositions of Christianity will never influence the secular world to reconsider their presuppositions. We must provide an answer that is backed up by evidence as Peter says in 1 Peter 3:5 that will stand up in court. God has provided the evidence if we will discover it and use it.
Authenticity is the general historicity and reliability.
Critics of New Testament Authenticity say:
1) The New Testament contains legends
2) New Testament events are not historical
3) The books were written by church people
trying to promote a particular belief or view.
4) The New Testament books were not written by claimed authors
5) The New Testament books were not written in the first century
6) The books (letters, epistles) were not sent to the people that supposedly received them.
Reasons to embrace the Authenticity of the NT:
1) Effect must have adequate cause.
We can see the powerful effect and the tremendous impact on history from the written New Testament documents during 2000 years of history.
2) The quality and the quantity of available ancient manuscripts that have come down to us from the earliest dates.
a) A manuscript is a hand copy of a document. A printed copy would not be a manuscript.
b) Most manuscripts wore out from use and time has consumed most of the ancient world’s written documents.
c) Examples of available manuscripts:
* Homer’s Illiad. . . . . . . . . .643 existing manuscripts (2nd)
* Caesar’s “Gallic Wars” . . . 10 existing manuscripts
* “Histories of Tacitus”. . . . . .4 ½ existing manuscripts
* New Testament. . . . . . 24,600 existing manuscripts (1st)
(also, an additional 24,000 NT portions available.)
POINT: “To be skeptical of the resultant text of the New Testament books is to allow all of classical antiquity to slip into obscurity, for no documents of the ancient period are as well attested bibliographically as the New Testament.”
3) None of the original autographs of any ancient document still exist. We do know the accepted date for the writing of the original and we can set the date when the copy (manuscript) was written. The time between the original writing and the oldest existing copy is call the elapse time.
a) Homer’s Illiad was written in 700’s BC, the oldest manuscript that we have today was copied in 1200 AD. There were 1,900 years between Homer and our oldest manuscript. A lot can be changed in a document during 1,900 years of making copies by hand.
b) Caesar’s “Gallic Wars” was written between 58-50 BC. Our earliest copy is from 850 AD. An elapse time of 900 years
c) “Histories of Tacitus” was written around 100 AD. The earliest existing copy is 850 AD. Elapse Time: 750 years
d) The New Testament
was written between 46-95 AD. The earliest existing portion is of the book
of John (which was originally written in 85 AD in
4) Early Translations
a. for the most part ancient literature was rarely translated into another language.
5) Early Church Fathers Use and Quotes of the NT
a) The early church father’s (leaders in the church during the first and second century) were often people who had known and heard the apostles teach.
b) The writings of the apostles became the New Testament. The church fathers would have allowed a change to be made to the apostles writings, nor would they have been allowed to make any lasting change themselves. An alteration would have quickly been identified.
c) They would not have embraced a psuedo (fake) writing.
d) The writings of Clement of Rome serve as one of many examples. Clement ministered along side the apostle Paul (Philippians 4:3). We have some manuscripts of Clements writings from the 1st century.Clement quotes from: Matthew, Mark, Luke, Acts, 1 Corinthians, 1 Peter, Hebrews,Titus.
e) Ignatius, who wrote between 70-110 quotes from 15 NT books.
f) Before the council of Nicea in 325 there were over 32,000 recorded quotes written from the New Testament.
Critics teach that the character and work of Jesus was a gradual increase of myths and traditions. That could be true it the elapse time was 2 or 3 generations. But, the New Testament was given to and then quoted by people who had known Jesus. The truth is there is no time for creating a change in Jesus or in his work. There are too many on lookers for one person to create a false quote, let alone an entire false book.
A few Manuscripts:
John Ryland’ MS (from 110-130 AD): A fragment that Destroy the liberal view that the book of John was not written until 160 AD by a pseudo-John.
Bodmer Papyrus II (from 150-200): Contains most of the book of John
Codex Vaticanus (325-350): Found in the
popes library in the
Codex Sinaiticus (from 350): A German scholar discovered it being thrown into a fireplace at a monastery at Mt Sinai in 1844. Contained nearly full Bible
Our OT is the same 39 books accepted by the Jews of Jesus’ day.
There was no council in the OT times that met to vote to accept the books
No other ancient writings have been so accurately handed down with such an abundance of textual evidence as the Old Testament
The Critics of the OT come from the thought of Higher Criticism.
Higher Criticism is full of high-sounding technical discussions but are really based on these presuppositions.
False Presuppositions of Higher Criticism:
1) Moses could not have written the Pentateuch (1st five books) because writing was unknown in his day (1400 BC). . .
BUT, archaeological discoveries have confirmed that writing was very common even among housewives before Abraham (2000 BC)
2) The evolution of man’s
cultural development does not agree with the Bible’s account of
BUT, each day new evidence is uncovered revealing the advanced state of ancient civilizations and technology all across the globe.
3) The miracle stories of were derived from ancient mythologies that were first recorded in mythology and then copied into the Bible. . .
BUT, a bias against miracles is simply a presuppositions against the existence of God. If God exist then miracles and prophecy are not only possible but highly probable if not necessary.
4) Fulfilled prophecy is also a miracle, and therefore impossible. So, since the OT is filled with miracles and prophecy then the validity of scripture is destroyed. . BUT, all the higher critics use grammar, vocabulary and style can not deflate the truth that prophecies have come to past in history and are unfolding
Higher criticism teaches that 4 different mystery
writers wrote Genesis and parts of the other first six books of the OT. They are called J, E, P, D referring to a “Jehovist,” a “Elohist,” a “Priestly,” and a “Deuteronomist” writer between 900 and 600 BC. This liberal view was develop and made
popular between 1806-1878. This is a ridiculous assumption for several
reasons yet it is very popular and considered academic even in seminaries. Imagine the scribes and the priest presenting
this “forgery” called the Law of Moses for the first time around 700 BC to the
masses of the general public and the political powers that would have existed
at that time in
*A priesthood *A system of worship *A temple *Power to priesthood *A national history
*Tithes ($) to the priest *Circumcision w/ all men *Holy writings *Annual Passover *Moses
The purpose of the Passover would then have been to remember something that never happened nor had they heard of it.
Would the Kings and rulers have accepted the priests’ new find?
Would the majority of the people?
Why had the priesthood been so careless with these documents that no one saw them or had heard of them for several hundred years?
It is unbelievable that all the institutions in the
law would have been suddenly accepted and practiced unless a generation of
people were really in
2) The empire of David and Solomon existed
3) The Babylonian captivity and return are now considered historical
4) The names of over 40 different kings mentioned in the OT have been found in documents and inscriptions
These things prove:
1) The OT was written by the contemporaries of these events
2) The OT was written carefully and accurately
3) The OT has been copied and preserved methodically until our time.
Jesus and the Old Testament:
1. He accepted the OT as authentic (There are 320 OT quotes in the NT)
2. He said, “The Scripture cannot be broken.” John 10:35
3. He said, “It is easier for heaven and earth to pass, than one itle or the law to fail.” Luke 16:17
4. He accepted Moses as the author of the Pentateuch (1st 5 books) Lk24:27; Jn5
5. He accepted Isaiah as the author of both divisions of Isaiah.
(He quotes Isaiah 6:9-10 in Matt.13:14 & Isaiah 53:1 in John 12:38)
6. He accepted Daniel as the author of Daniel. Matt. 24:15
7. He accepted these people as
historical: Adam/Eve Mt.19:4,5; Abel, Mt.23:35; Noah Lk.17:26;
8. He accepted creation in Genesis as historical. Mk 10:6-9
9. He accepted the Flood as historical. Mt.24:37-39
10. He accepted these
It is a serious thing to challenge the authenticity of the Old Testament when Jesus accepted it and used it as foundational material to his life and ministry.
“If you believed Moses you would believe me, for he wrote about me. But since you do not believe what he wrote, how are you going to believe what I say?” John 5:46,47
a. General Revelation is what God has revealed to all men in nature, history and conscience.
b. Special Revelation (direct revelation), is what God has revealed in his written word. It is knowledge unknowable to the natural.
The books and letters of scripture are truly written by the claimed authors in the time they are said to have been written. They were received by the people (churches, etc.) that they were addressed to. They are not frauds, but are historical documents.
Is the recording of truth as the Spirit of God moved on men to write or speak it. Inspiration speaks of the origin and source of the message. The scriptures came from God the Holy Spirit.
The Bible carries with it the divine authority of God. It is binding upon man – on his mind, conscience, will , heart. Man, doctrine, tradition and the church are all subject to the authority of Scripture.
This means that the scriptures are without error in the original manuscripts. It is inerrant in all that it affims (historical, scientific, moral, doctrinal.)
The one who inspired the writing of Scripture (Holy Spirit) is also the one who illumines the minds of those who read and study it. Because of sin and darkened understanding, no one can understand scripture properly without the assistance (illumination) of the Holy Spirit.
“Canon” comes from the Greek word “kanon.”
It means originally “a reed or rod.” Since these rods were used as measuring rods the word “kanon” came to mean “a rule or standard.”
This word was used to describe and identify the accepted books of scripture that would be the churches standard.
a. Apostolicity – must either be written by an apostle or someone closely associated with an apostle
b. Reception by the Churches – must be universally received by the local churches as authentic at the time of their writing
c. Consistency – consistent with the doctrine that the church already possessed
d. Inspiration – Each book must give evidence, internally and externally, of being divinely inspired.
e. Recognition – Each must be recognized as canonical in the writings of the Church Fathers and then used by those who at that time had the gift of pastor/teacher.
Rejection of the Apocrypha
a. The apocrypha was never in the Hebrew cannon. (the OT)
b. Jesus Christ did not, nor did any apostle, quote from the apocrypha.
c. Josephus expressly excluded them from his list of sacred scripture.
d. No mention of the apocrypha was made in any catalogue of the canonical books in the first four centuries of the church.
e. They never claim to be inspired by their authors.
f. No prophets were connected with these writings
g. These books contain many historical, geographical and chronological errors.
h. The apocrypha teaches doctrines and upholds practices which are contrary to the canon of scripture:
-Prayers and offerings for the dead (2 Maccabees 12:41)
-Suicide justified in 2 Maccabees 14
-Atonement & salvation by almsgiving (giving money)
-Cruelty to slaves justified
-Doctrine of Emanations
-Pre-existence of souls
Books That Were Debated for Inclusion/Exclusion in the NT Hebrews – Western church thought it was a non-Pauline forgery
James – Authorship was questioned in West
2 Peter – Authorship questioned, Chapter 2 similar to Jude
Jude – Authorship questioned
Revelation – Eusebius Questioned it because he opposed the
doctrine of Christ’s personal return to earth (chiliasm)
The Shepherd of Hermas – Non-apostolic origin; Late date of
Didache – Uncertain origin; Late date
Revelation of Peter – Authenticity doubted
The Bible was originally written in Hebrew (the Old Testament) and Greek (the New Testament)
For years it has been translated into other languages for other people to read.
Two basic methods of Bible Translation
1) Formal Equivalence – render the exact words form for form, word for word. But, strict literalism can distort the original meaning because it may not take into account such things as idioms.
2) Dynamic Equivalence – reproduce the closest natural equivalent of the original. It does this first in meaning, second in style. This is to give modern reader the same dynamic impact. This is thought for thought translation instead of word for word. Of course, for this to be a correct translation you must have the correct interpretation to correctly translate the thought.
Jerome who translated the Latin Vulgate in 405 said: “For I myself not only admit but freely proclaim that in translating from the Greek (except in the case of the holy scriptures where even the order of the words is a mystery) I render sense for sense and not word for word.”
Martin Luther, when he translated the German Bible, attempted to reproduce the spirit of the author; at times this could only be done by idiomatic rendering, though when the original required it only word for word could be used.
Strictly Literal Translation
New American Standard
New King James
New American Bible
Literal with Freedom to be Idiomatic
New International Version
New Jerusalem Bible
Revised English Bible
New Jewish Version
Dynamic Equivalent (Modern Speech)
Today’s English Version
The Living Bible
Use 3 or 4 Bible translation for yourself:
For detailed word studies. . . . New American Standard
New Revised Standard
For general study. . . . . . . . . .New International Version
New Jerusalem Bible
For reading pleasure. . . . . . . The Living Bible
Other useful translations by individual men:
Williams New Testament – by Charles B. Williams
New Testament in Modern English – by J.B. Phillips
New Testament: An Expanded Translation – Kenneth Wuest
The Worrell New Testament – by A.S. Worrell
The Emphasized Bible (OT/NT) – by Joseph Bryant Rotheraham
Is Christianity only one of many religions? No. None other is like Christianity.
Do all religions possess a certain amount of truth and error?
Scriptural Christianity is either all true or all false
Christianity is absolutely true or completely false.
If Christianity is true then all other religions are false.
1) The Bible Claims to be Unique
a) The God of the Bible is the only true God (Jeremiah 10:10)
b) Christ is the only way to God (John 14:6)
c) The Bible is the only true revelation from God (Isaiah 8:20; Rev 22:18-19)
d) Only way of salvation (Galatians 1:9)
2) Christianity has a Unique Historical Basis
a) Moslem. . . . . .based on teachings of Mohammed
b) Buddhism. . . . .based on teachings of Buddha
c) Confucianism. . .based on teachings of Confucius
d) Christianity. . . . .NOT based on the teachings of Christ, but based on who he is and what he did in history (namely the cross) Salvation is not in his teaching but salvation is in Him. No other religion is as based on historical events & facts
3) Christianity has Unique Account of Origins
-Other religions confess their utter ignorance on this point.
-None (including evolution) can go back to the beginning
a) Babylonian -began with a chaotic mixture of 3 waters
b) Egyptian –initial watery chaos, everything else evolved
c) Greek –a chaos of water at the beginning
d) Roman –a universal blind interplay of atoms
e) Evolution –similar, more sophisticated, began w/ matter
f) Christianity –starts with special creation by an eternal, omnipotent, personal God:
An eternal God. . .explains where the concept of time came from An infinite God. . adequate cause for bigness & smallness of space
Omnipotent. . . accounts for vast power and matter in cosmos
Omniscient. . .explains intelligence and order of creation
Personal . . .justifies life, personality and freewill
4) Uniqueness of Jesus Christ
No one is like Jesus Christ in history, in myths, in literature. No one even imagined him.
Jesus is not on a list of great religious leader.
Jesus is not at the head of the line because he is not even in the same line as other religious leaders.
Jesus Christ is in contrast to them in these ways:
a) Anticipation of his coming
b) Virgin birth –there are myths of demi-gods being born but here the eternal God himself was conceived & born.
c) Divine/Human nature –the only begotten Son of God
d) Sinless Life –a whole life without sin in deed, word or thought (1 Pt.2:22; 1 Jn.3:5; 18:38; Mt.27:4; 2 Cr 5:21)
e) Unique Teaching –many non-believers call Jesus the greatest teacher ever. Sermon on the Mount, Upper Room discourse, parables are without parallel in history and quoted by many religions and many non-believing leaders, sometimes unknowingly
f) Unique Death –Jesus died of free will (J 10:18; 19:30)
g) Resurrection –greatest proof of his absolute uniqueness.
-Other leaders have tombs and memorials.
This is also called the Character of God or Attributes of God
If God can be known, can he be defined?
God can not be defined exhaustively, yet he can be defined with descriptive words.
These descriptive words are the very nature or character of God. They are his attributes.
God can display one attribute or quality at a given time but never is one attribute preeminent over any of the others.
Sovereignty God rules over all.(Ps.103:19; Rom. 8:28)
Righteousness God and his plan are perfect.
Justice God is fair. He cannot be unfair. (Isa. 30:18)
Love God’s love is unconditional.
(1 John 4:8, 16 “o qeos agaph estin” not “o qeos o agaph estin”
God is love, but love is not God. No article on love making love the nature of God but not giving love its own identity.)
Eternal God has always existed and always will be (John 11:25)
Omniscience God knows everything and all things. Ps. 139:1-4; John 1:47,48)
Omnipotence God has all power and can do anything. (Luke 1:37)
Omnipresence Immanence. God is everywhere at all times. God is with us in our world, our dimension, our time. (Ps.139:7-12)
Infinite Transcendent. Outside of creation. He is not bound by time or space. He is beyond where we can go.
Immutability God never changes. (Heb. 13:8)
Veracity God is absolute truth. (Isa. 65:16)
Five Hebrew Words for Faith
1. Prop - Genesis 15:6, the word for “amen.” It means to use God as a prop. To use God as a foundation, to lean on Him.
2. Slam - Psalm 37:3, the word translated “faith” or “trust.” This Hebrew word originally used for two wrestlers grappling, when finally one is picked up and slammed down. It began to mean to” pick up your troubles and problems and slam them on the Lord.”
3. Flee – Psalm 57:1, used to say “flee like a bunny.” As a rabbit would flee from a large animal. The rabbit does not stay and fight the predator, instead he flees. Right before he is about to be overtaken the rabbit sees a rock with a crack in it or a cleft. He goes in and is safe.
4. Withstand – Job 13:15, means to trust though in extreme pain. Habbakkuk 3:17,18 and Daniel 3:17, 18.
5. Hang on – In Isaiah 40:31 “Those who hope in the Lord. . .” This word originally used in making rope. There is first just a little strand, which is easy to break. These are the “faint” in verse 30 (tired, weary, stumble and fall). But the word is reference to the process of making a rope with that one little breakable strand. The word “hope” in Isaiah 40:31 means to be a strand twisted into a great rope and therefore made strong and came to mean “trust.” It means not just to “hope” but to “keep on hoping” as you become a gigantic, powerful rope which nothing can break.”
“Faithful” is “pistos” which means “trusty, faithful; of persons who show themselves faithful.
God is faithful to forgive sins (1 John 1:9)
God is faithful to keep us saved (2 Timothy 2:13)
God is faithful to deliver us through temptations (1 Corinthians10:13; 1 Peter 4:19)
God is faithful to keep his promises to us (Heb. 10:;23)
God is faithful to us in suffering ( 1 Peter 4:19)
God is faithful in fulfilling his plan for us (1 Thess.5:24; 1 Cor. 1:4-9)
God is faithful to strengthen us (2 Thes. 3:3)
Jesus is the faithful and merciful high priest (Heb. 2:17)
Jesus Christ is synonymous with faithfulness(Revelation 19:11)
These are the most common false doctrines that are taught
1. Deny the deity of Jesus Christ.
2. Deny the virgin Birth of Jesus Christ
3. Deny the inspiration of the Word of God.
4. Deny the inerrancy of the Word of God.
5. Deny the authority of the Word of God. Add revelations, dreams, church authority, a man’s word or a new book from God to the same authoritative level as the Bible.
6. Deny that man is a sinner.
7. Deny salvation accomplished by the blood of Jesus Christ
8. Deny the physical resurrection of Jesus Christ
9. Deny the trinity. Confuse the Father, Son and Spirit.
10. Deny salvation by faith. Replace this with good deeds for salvation.
11. Deny that there is really a literal, eternal hell.
12. Deny the character of God by overemphasizing one aspect such as the love of God. It is eventually taught that everyone goes to heaven.
13. Deny final judgment for individual accountability to God.
14. Deny other groups or churches could be saved outside a their own special church or fellowship.
Greek “koinonia” or “koinonia” and means “fellowship, a close mutual relationship; participation, sharing in; partnership; contribution, gift.”
Root word is “common”, “share” and is opposite of “one’s own”
Greek literature used “koinonia” to describe partners in business, joint owners of a piece of property, shareholders in a common enterprise.
Translated into English as: fellowship, communion, participation, share a common life, partnership.
Philemon 6 reefers to Christian who share a “koinonia” faith
Philip. 1:5 refers to Christians who are “koinonia” in the gospel
Derivatives of the word Koinonia occur over 60 times in the NT in reference to the supernatural life that Christians share.
It is eternal life from God through Jesus and is shared by all believers.
“Koinonia” is the combining the vertical with the horizontal, the divine with the human and constitutes its utterly unparalleled life.”
1. Fellowship begins with faith in Jesus Christ
(1 Corinthians 1:9; Philemon 6)
2. Fellowship with God requires agreement with His word.
(1 John 1:7)
3. Fellowship is with the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
(Philippians 2:1; 2 Corinthians 13:14)
Fellowship with men means to lay down individual goals and unite as a team. (Galatians 2:9)
Fellowship can not occur with light and darkness, or good and evil. (2 Corinthians 6:14)
6. Maintaining fellowship with God and as a result with believers also. (1 John 1:3-10)
The New Testament was originally written in Greek. It was the common language of the people in the Roman world.
a b g d e z h q i k l m n x o p r s(V) t u
a b g d e z a th i k l m n x o p r s t u
f c y w
ph ch ps o
A Greek word would look like this: qeoV
It is pronounced in English: thee – os
It is written, or transliterated, in English: theos
It means, or is translated, in English: God
logoV low-gos logos “word” (used in “logical”)
nomov nu –mos nomos “Law” (used in “antinomian”)
aggelov ang-el-os angelos “angel” (used in “angel”)
ergon er-gone ergon “work” (used in “energy”)
teknon tech-non technon “child” (not used in English)
egw eh-go ego “I have”
blepw blep-w blepo “I see”
baptizw bap-tidz-o baptizo “I baptize”
zwzw sodz-o sozo “I save”
1. The original relationship between Jehovah and Lucifer
a. Ezekiel 28:12-16
b. Isaiah 14:12
2. Lucifer’s Sin
a. Ezekiel 28:16
b. 1 Timothy 6:10 (Matt.6:24; Romans 1:25)
3. Jehovah confronts the sin
a. Ezekiel 28:16 (Genesis 4:23; Psalms 145:;8)
4. Lucifer rejects Grace
a. Ezekiel 28:17
b. 1 Timothy 3:6 (2 Corinthians 7:10)
5. Lucifer challenges Jehovah & rebels with Five “I wills”
a. Isaiah 14:13,14
6. Angels make their choice: “Who is Lord?”
a. Revelation 12:7, 9
b. Matthew 25:41
c. 2 Peter 2:4 and Job 4:18
7. Jehovah puts down rebellion with Four “I dids”
a. Ezekiel 28:17-18
b. Luke 10:18
8. Jehovah sentenced Lucifer
a. Matthew 25:41
Lucifer appealed the verdict. Accuses Jehovah’s character
a. Genesis 3:1
b. Zechariah 3:1-6, “Satan” means accuser (Rev.12:10)
10. Jehovah suspends sentence; Begins plan to reveal his character
a. Romans 8:36
b. 1 John 4:4
11. Man is created to solve the angelic conflict
a. Romans 5:12 and Romans 5:18
b. Matthew 25:41 and Ephesians 2:2,3
c. Romans 8:36-39
d. Isaiah 53:4-7
e. Ephesians 1:12 and 3:21
12. Jehovah’s plan and hidden strategy
a. Ephesians 3:9-11
b. Revelation 13:8
c. Hebrew 2:14
d. Ephesians 1:4
e. 1 Corinthians 2:8
f. 1 Corinthians 2:7
g. Romans 16:25 and 1 Timothy 3:16
13. Victorious Proclamation: The Church Age
a. 2 Corinthians 2:14
b. 1 Corinthians 4:9
c. Colossians 2:14,15
d. Job 1:8,11;2:3
14. The Final
a. Revelation 20:1-10
b. 2 Peter 2:4
c. Jude 6
d. Daniel 7:9-14
e. Philippians 2:10-11
f. The witnesses
-1 Corinthians 6:3
1. The entire Mosaic Law is given in the Pentateuch (1st 5 books of OT)
2. The division of the Mosaic Law
a. Codex I. . . .The Moral Code (Ex. 20:1-17; Lev. 11-27)
b. Codex II. . .The Spiritual Code (Ex. 25:1-31:18; Lev.1-27)
c. Codex III. . .The Social Code (Ex. 21:1-23:19; Leviticus)
(see detailed listing below)
3. The Law to the Jew today
Nationally their eyes are veiled.
Individually they may turn and have the veil removed.
(2 Cor. 3:15-16).
4. The Law to the Gentile
Nationally and individually they live without the law and will be judged without the law. (Romans 2:12-16)
5. Recipients of the law were Jews and only Jews of the OT(Exodus 19:3; Lev. 26:46; Romans 3:19; 9:4)
a. Never was the law intended for the Gentiles
b. Christians are not under the law
(Acts 15:5, 24; Romans 6:14; Galatians 2:19)
6. Christ fulfilled the Law of Moses (Matthew 5:17)
a. Codex I – he lived the perfect life
b. Codex II – his death, burial, resurrection, ascension,
c. Codex III- patriotism and observance of the Laws of
family, priesthood and
7. Church and relationship to Law
a. Romans 10:4, “Christ is the end of the Law,”
b. Since the church is not under the law, the law con not and is not the Christian way of life.
c. Believers are under the law of Spirituality
Rm. 8:2-4 1 Cor.13 Gal.5:18, 22,23
8. Limitations of Mosaic Law
a. Can not justify (Acts 13:39; Rm.3:20,28; Gal.2:16; Phil.3:9)
b. Can not give eternal life (Gal. 3:21)
c. Can not provide Holy Spirit (Gal.3:2)
d. Can not produce miracles (Gal. 3:5)
e. Can not resolve the problem of the old sin nature (Rm. 8:3,7
9. Present purpose of the Law
a. Codex I: To use the divine standard to convince man that
he is a sinner and needs a savior.
(Rm. 3:20,28; Gal. 3:23,24; 1 Tm.1:9,10)
b. Codex II: To communicate through Bible teaching of the principles of Codex II God’s grace of salvation for theunbeliever and spiritual rebound for the believer.
c. Codex III: To provide the basis for national function, freedom and prosperity under the divine laws of Establishment; to preserve nations under the principle of Divine Institution
Keeping the Law is NOT the way
of salvation but is a revelation of:
1. Man’s sin nature
2. Man’s salvation
3. Man’s freedom and of prosperity on earth.
The Division of the Law
A) Codex I. . . .The Moral Code (Ex.20:1-17; Lev.11-27)
1) Known as the commandments
2) Composed of 120 commandments
3) Includes the Decalogue (10 commandments)
4) It defines morality
5) It proves man is a sinner and needs a savior (Rm.7:7-14)
6) It provides the basis for Divine Institutions
a) Volition, free will. . .basis for freedom
b) Marriage. . .stabilizer of the human race
c) Family. . .basis for orderly society
d) Nation. . .basis for privacy, protection of rights & freedoms
7) Summed up be Jesus in Matthew 22:36-40
8) Fulfilled by NT saints by love (Rm.13:9-10; Gal.5:14; James 2:8)
B) Codex II. . .The Spiritual Code (Ex.25:1-31:18; parts of Lev.1-27
1) Known as the ordinances
2) Regulated worship
3) Complete shadow of Christology (The branch of theology which
concerns the person and work of Jesus Christ, particularly as revealed in the OT.)
4) Complete shadow of Soteriology (“The doctrine of the plan of
salvation; the entire saving work of God.”)
5) Includes tabernacle, holy days, levitical offerings, modus operandi of levitical priesthood and believer’s worship during age Jews
6) Described as a shadow of New Testament reality (Col.2:17; Heb.8
7) Points to a greater truth
8) Fulfilled by NT saints in Christ (Hb.10:4-7;Gal. 3:10-14)
C) Codex III. . .The Social Code (Ex.21:1-23:19; parts of Lev.)
1) Known as the judgments
2) Outlines the perfect standard for a nation under God
a) dietary laws
b) soil conservation
c) laws of sanitation
f) military service
4) Punishments for nonobservance were also stated
5) An example of NT overriding Codex III is Acts 10:9-21
6) When the Pharisees added traditions to the Word of God they placed
them in Codex III. Regulations concerning washings, Sabbaths, gentiles etc. Jesus called them traditions of men and did not consider these additions scriptural. The Pharisees did not add to Codex I and II.
The more a true witness is challenged the more perfect his testimony will be revealed to be. To challenge the existence of God with an open and pure heart will only prove to that heart the reality of God’s existence.
Where few facts are known and ignorance is great, negative evidence is of small account, but supporting evidence will have great weight.
Skeptics Will Make These False Statements:
Cosmologist can explain the origin of the universe w/o a God.
Archaeologists have shown the Bible to be a legend at best.
The Bible is too primitive for modern society’s use.
People in the past have used God to explain the unexplainable. Today we have science.
Philosophically, the concept of God is unthinkable.
The existence of God cannot be proved in any arena.
Some True Statements:
The Bible is the only religious source from ancient times that has endured
Science has explained the origin of the universe with the following
a) Big Bang Theory
b) Oscillation Theory
c) Static Universe Theory
One constant element in all three of these theories is that they demand a first cause before they can begin.
It is irrational (unreasonable to human mind) that the universe came from nothing.
It is irrational to the:
A) Ancient mind
b) Eastern & Western mind
c) Scientific mind
d) Any mind
The existence of God is reasonable.
It is one of the truths about God that does not take spiritual insight.
Most spiritual truths come by revelation (Word of God, Spirit of God).
Romans 1:19-21 explains the revelation of God attainable through the process of human reason:
“What may be known about God is plain. . .understood from what has been made. . .
they knew God. . .”
Science cannot find a natural explanation for the origin of the universe.
After thousands of years of thought and research nothing is easier to verify (nor can it be disproved) than:
“In the beginning God created the
heavens and the earth.”
Point of Doctrine:
A being greater than the universe has to exist. (we call him God)
Reasons For The Doctrine of God:
Category A: Reasons logically dependent on sense
experience (a posteriori, or “posterior to”)
1. Cause (Cosmological) – There cannot be an infinite regress of finite causes. There must be an uncaused causer.
2. Design (Teleological) – Observable order and design demand a designer
3. Moral (Anthropological) – all people possess moral impulse. Behavioral science can not explain this since many moral behaviors go unrewarded for long periods of time. The development of moral behavior cannot come out of nature.
4. Motion – motion cannot start itself. Infinite regress of motion is meaningless. The unmovable mover of the Greeks.
5. Perfection – There is a universal pyramid of beings seen from insects to men. Man Is at the top of the existence pyramid, but the universe is too grand for man to be the Ultimate expression of existence.
6. Dependency – All things exist in a network of relationships and dependency. Infinite regress of dependency is contradictory must begin with an independent being.
Category B: Reasons logically independent of sense experience (a priori, or “prior to”)
7. Perfect Being (Ontological) -concept of perfection exists but is never attained.
8. Innate Idea – people are born with the idea of God
9. Mysticism – man can experience God directly. This union is so real it is self-validating
10. Truth – the concept of truth exists. People seek truth so the ultimate truth exists.
11. Man is Finite being finite is proof there is the infinite
12. Blessedness – man is basically restless, searching, striving. This drive is only fulfilled when man finds God.
C. S. Lewis: If there is hunger, there is food. If there is thirst, there is drink.
If there is curiosity, there is knowledge. If there is loneliness, there is society.
Starvation does not prove that food does not exist.
Loneliness does not prove people don’t exist.
Failure to achieve immortality, to reach paradise, or to find God does not prove any of these don’t exist.
Time: Time can be measured. We call it seconds, minutes, hours, days, and years. Because time exist today and is actual and real and because it can be measured there had to be a beginning of time. Timecannot go back into the past forever. If you can measure or count time it had to have a beginning and it demands an end. This is a basic concept of math. If you are currently counting something, there had to be an original first number. In other words before there is a “two” there has to have already been a “one”.
Prayer must be applied in two directions
A. For men to receive strength to accept the established will of God
B. For God to move in agreement with man’s desire
The Established Will of God
1. We pray for our wills to line up with God’s will
2. If we are to experience victory in our life we must seek, find and live God’s established will for us and our time.
3. Matthew 26:39, “Yet not as I will, but as you will.”
4. Matthew 6:10, “Your kingdom come, your will be done on earth. .”
5. Acts 4:27; James 4:1,2; 1 John 5:14
The Desired Will of Man
1. We go to God and by our wills ask him to intervene
2. For victory to be realized we must ask and believe while under the
authority of the above, “The Established Will of God”
3. Matthew 26:39, “My Father, if it is possible, may this cup be taken. . .
4. Matthew 6:11-13, “Give us today our daily bread. . .Forgive us. . .Lead us. . .Deliver us.”
5. Acts 4:29 James 4:2,3 1 John 5:15
Jesus Teaching on Prayer
Luke 11:1-13 Luke 18:1-8 Matthew 5:44 Matthew 6:5-6
Matthew 6:7,8 Matthew 18:19,20 Matthew 21:22 Matthew 26:41
New Testament Teaching on Prayer
Ephesians 1:17,18 Ephesians 6:18 1 Timothy 2:1,2 1 Jn.5:14,15
There are no conflicts with Scripture and Nature
There are conflicts with Theology and Science
Theology is man’s study of God’s inspired scriptures
Science is man’s study of God’s created natural world
1) Both Groups (theologians and scientist) are subject to error.
a) Galileo (1564-1642) was kept under house arrest by the church for 8 years for supporting the Copernican theory that stated that the earth revolved around the sun.
b) Science once believed in the eternal cosmos.
2) Either group is subject to correction by the other
a) Science has refuted the flat earth theory so theologians can no longer use the scriptural reference to the “four corners of the earth” as literal.
b) Science held to spontaneous generation into the mid-1800’s even though scripture taught God made them “according to their kind.”
3) The Bible is not a science textbook.
4) Science is constantly in the process of developing
. . .that demand a response in support of God’s existence:
A) If the physical forces within stars were only slightly different, our universe would be almost devoid of carbon and oxygen, and life would not exist.
B) If gravity was slightly stronger, all stars would be red dwarfs, too cold to support life.
C) If gravity was slightly weaker, all stars would be blue giants, burning too briefly for life to develop.
D) The mass of the neutron in an atom is delicately balanced with the mass of the proton; if it were not protons would decay into neutrons and make life impossible.
e) 21 % of gases are oxygen. If it was 25% fires would break out spontaneously around the globe. If it were 15% higher life would suffocate.
f) If proteins were not almost exactly 1,836 times heavier than electrons molecules would not be able to form and there would be no chemistry, no life, and no one to wonder why.
g) The position and angle of the earth is set. A few degrees closer we disintegrate. A few degrees away we become a frozen rock.
h) The 23 degree axis of the earth provide equal distribution of sun and makes possible the food chain.
i) The atomic clock is the most accurate time instrument we have invented. They are accurate up to with in 3 seconds a millennium. We use the rotation of the stars to set and check these clocks.
j) After 150 years of study, fossil records are beginning to agree with scriptures account that life forms appeared abruptly with no transitional forms.
Laws of Thermodynamics and the Scriptures
Law #1: The law of conservation of mass and energy:
Matter and energy cannot be created or destroyed.
Genesis 2:1,2 “Thus the heavens and the earth were completed in all their vast array. By the seventh day God had finished the work he had been doing.”
Law #2: The law of declining order:
Contents of our universe are becoming less ordered and more random.
Left to themselves things become disorganized and wear out.
“In the beginning you laid the foundations of the
earth, and the heavens are the work of your hands.
They will perish, but you remain;
they will all wear out like garment.”
“May God himself, the God of peace, sanctify you through and through. May your whole spirit, soul and body be kept blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.” 1 Thessalonians 5:23
A believers Spirit is saved (born again, new birth) once in time for all eternity. This is complete. (Ephesians 2:6)
A believers Soul (mind) is being saved in time during their life. This is a process. (Romans 12:1-2)
A believers Body will be saved at the rapture (resurrection) of the church. This will happen only in the future. (1 Corinthians 15:50-54)
The Purpose: To exemplify the unchanging nature of God
1. Organization -God’s plan to simplify our lives God’s plan to keep His will in perfect order
Purpose: A consistent godly lifestyle principle
Objective: How to organize the organism
Goal: To be an effective witness for the Lord Jesus Christ
2. Sow and Reap-God’s plan to provide for our lives God’s plan to cause His will to reproduce after His kind
Purpose: A faith building principle
Objective: How to receive the provisions of god
Goal: To super abound, having our needs met
3. Stewardship -God’s plan to fulfill our lives God’s plan to cause his will to produce an abundance
Purpose: A character building principle
Objective: Wise stewardship over the provisions of God
Goal: To super abound and meet the needs of others
Authority - God’s plan to protect our lives God’s plan to
protect the integrity of His will
Purpose: A discipline building principle
Objective: How to stay in position with God
Goal: To actualize concepts for successful living
5. Unconditional Love –God’s plan to keep our lives from failing
God’s plan to keep his word from returning unto him void
Purpose: A proper attitude building principle
Objective: How to have good success with God and man
Goal: To have victory over evil circumstances
6. Obedience - God’s plan to reward our lives
God’s plan to show forth the excellency of his will
Purpose: A righteousness building principle
Objective: How to live in the blessed state
Goal: To put our faith into action
7. Agreement - God’s plan to crown our lives with peace
God’s plan for us to be at oneness with his will
Purpose: A communication, decision making, problem solving principle
Objective: How to rest in God
Goal: To achieve the peace that Jesus promised
Theology – according to its etymological features, is a compound of two Greek words: “Theos” (“God”) and “Logos” (“speech” or “expression”). It means to discourse or discuss upon one specific subject, God. To discuss God we must include his works, his ways, his word. Some examples of Theology are :
Augustinian Theology, Calvinistic Theology,
Lutheran Theology, Arminian Theology,
Revealed Theology, Natural Theology,
Catholic Theology, Evangelical Theology,
Theology, Mercersburg Theology,
Biblical Theology, Fundamental Theology,
Practical Theology, Pastoral Theology,
Black Theology, Exegetical Theology,
New Theology, Polemic Theology,
Rational Theology, Systematic Theology
Systematic Theology – the collecting, scientifically arranging, comparing, exhibiting, and defending of all facts from any and every source concerning God and His works. The person who does this must be a Biblicist or one who is not only a Biblical scholar but also a believer in the divine character of each and every portion of the text of the Bible. Systematic Theology is not an end in itself; its purpose its to classify and clarify the truth set forth in the Scriptures.
Systematic Theology is most often broken down into
these 8 fields of study:
Bibliology – examines the scriptures to see if the beliefs concerning the Bible are true. It is not the study of the Bible’s content, but the study of the Bible’s nature and character.
Christology – is
the doctrine respecting the Lord Jess Christ.
This theme is pursed into the preincarnate
Christ, Christ incarnate, the sufferings of Christ,
the resurrection of Christ, the ascension of Christ, the second advent of
Christ and the eternal
Pneumatology - is the scientific treatment of any or all the facts related to spirit. This could include: 1) God the Spirit, 2) Angels as spirits, 3) Man’s spiritual side. The study of angels becomes angelology and the study of man’s spirit is covered in anthropology. The study called pneumatology generally involves information concerning the the Holy Spirit, the Trinity, symbols of the Holy Spirit, the Holy Spirit and prophecy, Holy Spirit’s work with Gentiles and Israel, Holy Spirit’s work in the lives of Christians.
Angelology – the study of the doctrine of angels. It includes the origin, nature, fall, and classification of angel. Also the work and destiny of the angels is involved.
Anthropology – is the doctrine of man in relation to God. It covers the origin of man, the unity of the race, the fall of man, and the consequences of his fall.
Soteriology- that portion of Systematic Theology which treats of salvation. Soter is from the Greek word meaning savior.
Ecclesiology- the sixth major division of Systematic Theology, contemplates the New Testament doctrine of the Church. Study involves the founding, organization, ordinances, and mission of the church.
Eschatology – Considers the biblical doctrines of the last things. These are the doctrines of the second coming of Christ, of the resurrections, of the judgments, of the millennium and of the final state.
Hebrew spelling “YHWH”, the personal name of God:
The Lord, or Yahweh.
Spelled in the NIV as “LORD” to distinguish it from “Adonai” or “Lord.”
Whenever the Hebrew names stand together as in
“YHWH Adonai” it is translated
The Root of YHWH is “hawa” which means:
a) “existence” as of a tree trunk where it falls in Ec11:3
b) “development” as in Neh. 6:6 Thus, the concept form these meanings (“existence” and “development”):
-The Active, Self-Existent One
Sacredness of the Name YHWH:
In post-exilic times (after the Babylonian captivity in 586 BC) YHWH began to be considered so sacred that it was not pronounce aloud.
They said Adonai (Lord) when they read YHWH.
Around 600AD the vowels of adonai (a, o, a, I) were combined with the Hebrew consonants to remind synagogue readers to pronounce Adonai.
This produced the artificial name Jehovah.
Compound Names of God
1. Yahweh Jireh The Lord will provide Gn.22:14
2. Yahweh Nissi The Lord is my banner Ex.17:15
3. Yahweh Shalom The Lord is peace Judges 6:24
4. Yahweh Sabbaoth The Lord of Hosts 1 Sam.1:3
5. Yahweh Maccaddeshcem The Lord who sanctifies you Ex.31:13
6. Yahweh Roi The Lord is my shepherd Ps.23:1
7. Yahweh Tsidkenu The Lord our righteousness Jer.23:6
8. Yahweh Shammah The Lord is There Ezek. 48:35
Elohim refers to God as:
d. Producer of mighty works
Compound names with Elohim:
1. El Shaddai- Shaddai sis connected wth Akkadian whch means “mountain.” Thus, “the Almighty One standing on a mountain.” (Gen 17:;1;28:3;35:11; Ex.6:3; Ps.91:1-2)
2. El Elyon –The Most High God. First used in Gn.14:19, when Melchizedek blessed Abraham or Isaiah 14:14 recording of Satan’s attempt to usurp God. Not used much until time of David.
3. El Olam – “the Everlasting God.” Emphasizes God’s unchangeableness. (Psalm 100:5; 103:17; Isaiah 4:28)
4. El Roi – “the God Who Sees.” Hagar in Genesis 16:13
Creation of man 1) Age of Innocence
Fall of man 2) Age of Conscience
Flood of Noah 3) Age of Government (1,656 years after creation)
Abram & Mt Sinai 5)
Death of Christ (30 AD)
Day of Pentecost 6) Age of Church
Rapture (???? AD)
2nd Coming of Christ (7 years later)
Millennium 7) Age of the Kingdom (1000 years)
After the rapture of the church the seven year tribulation begins.
At the end of those seven years Jesus returns to the earth (Zech.14:4).
This seven year period is detailed in Daniel 2,7,9,11;Matthew 24 and Revelation 4-19.
It is divided into the first 3 ½ years and the second 3 ½ years.
Potential Order of events during first 3 ½ years:
In Daniel In Matthew 24 In Revelation
10 horns of 4th beast
Little horn False Christ appear 1st seal-Antichrist (6:2)
(9:27) False peace (24:5)
Wars/Cold Wars 2nd seal-Wars on earth (6:3)
Famines 3rd seal-Famine (6:5,6)
Earthquakes 4th seal-a fourth of earth dies (6:7,8)
Potential Order of events during second 3 ½ years:
In Daniel In Matthew 24 In Revelation
Anti-christ breaks Persecution of Jews 5th seal-Martyrdom 7 year
Covenant (24:9-28) of believers(6:9-11)
Idol set up in temple Idol set up(24:15) Idol set up (13:14) (9:27)
Mark 666 (13:16-18
Sun, Moon dark 6th seal-Sun black
The king (anti-chr.) 1 st - 6th trumpets- says He is God (8:6-19)
(11:36-39) Demonic activity begins
The king (anti-chr)
has wars but army from
army from East
East is trouble(11:40-45)
Rock (Jesus) Sign of Son of Man
Jesus appears; strikes statue Jesus appears destroys anti-chr.
(kingdoms of man) (24:30) (19:11-21) (2:44,45)
End of Tribulation
Beginning of 1,000 yr kingdom
In Daniel In Matthew 24 In Revelation
Thrones Set Up Sheep Nations & goat Satan locked up
for judgment nations judged. (25:31) (20:1-3)
Beast thrown in fire Eternal judgment Thrones set up to
(Daniel 7:11) ( Matt.25:46) rule (20:4)
End of 1,000 year Kingdom;
Great White Throne judgment ( Rev.20:11-15)
Old universe burns up (Rev. 21:1; 2 Pet.3:10-13)
New Universe created for eternity (Rev.21)