History of the Bible
- 3500 BC Early
Sumerian limestone tablets
- 3000 BC
Egyptian hieroglyphics had begun to develop
- 1400 BC We
have letters written by governors
Bible critics at one time claimed writing was not
developed until after Moses in 1400 BC
- Moabite Stone erected by Mesha,
king of Moab about 850
BC tells of Moab’s
revolt against Israel’s
King Jehoram and is in agreement with the OT
- Siloam Inscription records the construction of
a tunnel in Jerusalem
from King Hezekiah’s time and work recorded in the Bible from 700 BC.
- Ex. 31:18; 34:1,28; Dt.
27:2-3; Josh. 8:30-32
- Library of Assyrian King Ashurbanipal
(650 BC) has been recovered containing thousands of tablets.
- At Ebla
more than 16,m000 tablets from back to 2500 BC recovered
- Ezekiel 4:1
- In Athens, Greece
wood was white washed in order to show ink better
- Isaiah 30:8; Habakuk
- Used by the Hebrews
- Jeremiah 36:23 mentions a scribes’ knife used
for erasing leather writing
- The Jewish Talmud (a code of traditional laws)
required that Scripture be copied on animal skins.
- Apostle Paul asks that “the parchments” be sent
to him in 2 Timothy 4:13. Parchments were leather portions of the OT.
- Papyrus (from the pith
of the swamp grown papyrus plant. Pressed, dried and polished.)
- Used in Egypt as far back as 3000 BC
- By 400 BC ancient historians record “every one”
was writing on papyrus
Papyrus Rolls (scrolls)
- Average length was 30 feet and they were 9-10 inches high.
- Wrote in columns that were 3-4 inches wide
- Inner edge (or, both edges) were attached to a wooden roller
During the years 50-200 AD the codes developed.
Papyrus sheets were stacked and bound like a book. Codex had an advantage over
- They could easily be carried around
- Ready reference use
- Contained more written information
Christians copying the New Testament Letters helped
popularize the use of codex.
Beginning of Writing the Bible
- Moses wrote around 1400 BC
- Exodus 17:14 – memorial concerning Amalek
- Exodus 24:4 – words of the covenant at Sinai
- Exodus 34:27 – Ten Commandments
- Numbers 33:2 – Journey’s of Israel
- Deuteronomy 31:9,24 – Book of the Law
- Moses wrote the first five books of the Bible
- Joshua 8:31
- Judges 3:4
- Malachi 4:4
- Luke 24:44
- John 7:19
- Moses used portions of history previously recorded by men of God
who where eye witnesses of past events. He compiled these documents and
edited the book of Genesis by using writings of men like Adam, Seth,
Enoch, Noah, Shem, Abraham, Jacob, Joseph, etc.
- Genesis 2:4 – document of creation
- Genesis 5: 1 – document of Adam’s line
- Genesis 7-8 – appear to be journal entries of
- Genesis 10:1 – document of Noah’s line
- Genesis 12-24 – documents by an eyewitness of
events surrounding the life of Abraham
- Genesis 36 – document of Esau’s line
- Genesis 37 – document of Jacob’s life
- Joshua wrote in Joshua 24:26
- Samuel wrote in 1 Samuel 10:25
- Jeremiah wrote in Jeremiah 36:2
(wrote Jewish history around 70-90 AD) records (in Against Apion I.8) that the Old Testament canon developed
between Moses and Artaxerxes or until the time of
Ezra, Nehemiah and Malachi. This would be the years 1400 BC until about 450 BC.
- From the beginning these letters were considered authoritative.
- “I charge you before the Lord to have this
letter read to all the brothers.” 1 Thes.5:27
- These letters were exchanged between churches.
- “After this letter has been read to you, see
that it is also read in the church of the Laodiceans
and that you in turn read the letter from Laodicea.”
- Then authoritative written narratives of the life of Christ had to
- Luke 1:1-4
- John 20:30-31
- The climax had to be revealed for this new dispensation and
Revelation was given.
- “Write, therefore, what you have see, what is now, and what will take place later.”
of the Bible Today
“Testament” is an archaic word. “Contract” or
“Covenant” communicates better today.
The Old Covenant or the Old Contract is found in the English Bible as:
- five books of law (Pentateuch)
- twelve books of history (Joshua – Esther)
- five books of poetry (Job - Song of Solomon)
- seventeen books of prophecy (Isaiah – Malachi)
- five of these are the major prophets (Isaiah,
Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel)
- twelve of these are the minor prophets
This form of organization came from the Latin Vulgate translation in 405 AD by
Jerome. This Latin translation was made from the Greek translation of the
Hebrew scriptures known as the Septuagint (LXX). The
Latin Vulgate Old Testament then was a translation from a translation.
(Hebrew to Greek to Latin).
The Hebrew organization has three divisions in this order:
- Law (Gen., Ex., Lev., Num. Deut.)
- Former Prophets (Joshua, Judges, Samuel,
- Later Prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and
- Writings – Psalms, Proverbs, Job, S of S, Ruth, Lamentations,
Ecclesiates, Esther, Daniel, Ezra,
- Notice some books are classified in different groups
- The twelve minor prophets are one book
- The writers of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings were considered
prophets for they wrote with a prophetic outlook.
The New Covenant is:
- Five books of history (Mt., Mk., Lk., Jn., Acts)
- Twenty-one books of doctrine (Epistles)
- One book of Prophecy
Almost all of the 39 OT books are Hb.
The Hb. letters can be
found as headings in Psalm 119
There are no vowels
Similar to Hb. And uses the same letters
After exile to Babylon
(500 BC) Aramaic became common language of Palestine.
Nebemiah 8:8 seems to indicate that the people of Nehemiah’s
day needed the Hb scriptures translated into Aramaic
Aramaic appears in the OT in :
- Genesis 31:47 – in a place name
- Jeremiah 10:11
- Six chapters in Daniel (2:4b-7:28)
- Ezra 4:8-6:18 and 7:12-26
Note: The Dead Sea Scrolls reveal the exact same
break from Hebrew to Aramaic in Daniel 2:4 in two different manuscripts. These
MSS switch back to Hb. at the same place at the end
chapter 7. The Dead Sea Scrolls match our modern MSS exactly
after more than 2000 years of being coping.
The Aramaic spoken by Jesus and disciples is found
still recorded in these verses:
- Mark 5:41 – “talitha cumi”
(“little girl, get up”)
- Mark 7:34 – “ephphatha” (“be open”)
- Matthew 27:46 – “Eli, eli, lama sabachthani” (“My God, my God, why have you
- Mark 15:34 – “Abba” (“Father”)
- Romans 8:15, Galatians 4:6 – “Abba”
- 1 Corinthians 16:22 – “maranatha” (“Our
Jesus spoke Aramaic. This explains why sometimes when
the gospels quote Jesus the quotes may slightly vary in wording. Jesus said it
in Aramaic but the writes translated it into to Greek to record it for all to
NT was recorded in Greek
Gr. Was the universal
language of the day
New Testament Manuscripts (NT MSS)
Original letters written on papyrus
which has perished.
Early Christians made many copies of these letters
known as manuscripts.
A manuscript is anything written by hand.
Dating a manuscript
- Some have dates written on them.
- Undated manuscripts are given a date by examining the handwriting:
- Large or small letters?
- Words together or spaced?
- Number of columns?
- Appearance of columns?
- Appearance of columns?
- Plain/simple or Elaborate/complex lettering
- Word usage and grammar
- Style of letter
Two types of manuscripts:
- Earliest mss
- Most important
- Written in capital letters
- Smaller letters
- Written in running hand style
- Began to appear in the 800’s
- We have 5,000 Gr. NT mss
- 375 are the ancient uncial
- 250 of these ancient uncials are on vellum from
- 90 of these ancient uncials are on papyri
- 50 of these ancient uncials on papyri are from
- It was too bulky to copy the whole Gr. NT in one set so it was
copied in four volumes
- Volume One: The four gospels
- Volume Two: Acts and General Epistles (James,
1,2,3 John, 1,2 Peter)
- Volume Three: Pauline Epistles
- Volume Four: Revelation
- The letters were originally dictated
- Romans 16:22
- 1 Peter 5:12
- Galatians 6:11
- They were written:
- In large letters
- With no punctuation
- Slightly cursive handwritten style
- Fimilar words abbreviated.
- Columns were kept strai
ght by simply contin
uing the word on
- Three Great Uncials
- Codex Vaticanus –
(Codex B) (from the 300’s AD)
Each page a 10 inch square with 3
759 leaves of the finest vellum
iii. A scribe traced the original fading letters but they
are still visible
The front is lost up to Genesis
46:28 and the back is lost starting at Hebrews 9:14 (In the codex form the
general epistles come after Acts but 1,2 Timothy,
Titus and Revelation come after Hebrews.)
Today’s Greek text rely heavily
upon Codex Vaticanus
There is no Mark 16:9-20, but yet
the scribe appears to know it e3xists since he left space for it in this mss.
- Sinaitic Manuscript (Codex Aleph) (350 AD)
i. 15 inch square sheets with 4 columns
- Alexandrian Manuscript (Codex A) (400’s AD)
- Ephraem Rescriptus (Codex C) (400’s AD)
- Codex Bezae (Codex D)
Greek on left; Latin on right.
10 x 8 inch leaves with one
column per page.
About 2,800 exist but they date from 800-1500’s AD
Codex 33 is the most important since its text is
similar to Codex Vaticanus
These are awesome to see with their elaborate,
The covers are richly stamped
Initial letters luxuriously ornamented
Portions of scripture were copied out to be read in a church services.
Most often these are the pastor’s notes for the
The scripture was written into the notes to be read
during the sermon.
Translations from the Greek to other languages were
made almost immediately
- Syriac Versions – these would be translation copied from a manuscript from 100’s
- Curetonian Syriac translation into Syriac
(language of nations of Mesopotamis) from 400
AD with 80 leaves. Discovered in 1800’s.
- Sinaitic Syriac – from late 300’s AD a rescript
found ath St. Catherine’s Monastery on Mt. Sinai.
The original autographs of the NT do not exist.
But, copies were made of these original from the very
All copies were by hand until the printing press was
invented in 1456.
Errors are bound to have occurred during 1,400 years
of being copied.
Even with the invention of the printing press copies
have been produced with errors many times.
(The 1611 edition of the King
James Bible had 400 errors in this first edition. They were corrected in the
Once an error was made it could be copied and would eventually
be mixed into the text.
These errors produce the need for the science of
Textual Criticism has two branches:
- Lower Criticism – which seeks by comparision and study of all available mss evidence to
recover the exact words of the author. This is a necessary science.
- Higher Criticism – devotes itself to study of authorship, date of
composition and historical value. This is a science developed by the
liberals to undermine authenticity.
Identifying the need for Textual Criticism:
- It is necessary because no two existing MSS are
exactly alike. Most manuscripts disagree 6-10 times per chapter.
- We have 5,656 Gr. MSS, 10,000+ Latin MSS and
1,000+ translation mss
- Only 59 have the complete NT.
Although no two MSS are exactly alike they do fall
into a particular style of text.
Meaning the variations tend to fall into three basic
text-types that seem to show they were copied
from similar mss.
These three seem to come from the same geographical
Byzantine Text-type Western
Text-type Alexandrian Text-type
Byzantine Text-type (Majority)
1. Called Byzantine text-type.
2. Contains the majority of all the found Gr mss (80%)
3. They come from the Byzantine
Empire where Gr. was native
- Considered most inferior because all mss are from 300+ AD
- Most of them are from 1000+AD
6. This text tends to
combined variant readings to make a new one
that is different from both of its sources.
- Harmonization of the text by making parallel
- The built in smoothness
- Variations that are obviously
- The greatest argument is the scarcity of this text-type in the
early mss and its absence:
- In any papyri before 300 AD
- In the Early church Fathers
1. Mss of this text-type found from 200 AD
2. Used by early Christian writers in Palestine
and Asia Minor
3. Comes from the Western
4. Important when it agrees with the other text-types
- Found in the earliest mss, including the papyri
- Some of the Alexandrian papyri come from 110-200 AD
- Generally regarded as superior due to internal evidence:
- Its readings tend to be more difficult (which
explains why variations developed)
- Its readings tend to be shorter and not have
- This is the text-type found in Codex Vaticanus
and Codex Siniaiticus, and the papyri.
- It is the best text-type existing
Major Greek Texts
Eclectic Text (United Bible Societies text and Nestle/Aland
Textus Receptus (Foundation for King James Bible)
- It uses all the mss and all three text types.
- All the variants are displayed in the apparatus.
- Based on theory that the date and quality of mss is more important
than number of mss
- Tend to favor the earlier mss
- Tend to favor the Alexandrian text-type
- Follow Westcott and Hort’s methods
- Basis of several translations including NASB and NIV
- Represents all the mss of the Byzantine Text –type (also, called
- The KJ Textus Receptus
is based on the same text-type but only uses 6 mss where the majority text
uses 4,000+ mss of the same text –type
- Method is based on two principles:
- Any reading overwhelmingly attested by the mss
tradition is more likely to be original.
- Final decisions about readings ought to be made
on the basis of a reconstruction of their history in the manuscript
tradition. In other words they consider the Byzantine Text-type to be
original. There are five strands of the Byzantine that conflict. They
build a genealogy of development for the variations
- No translation is based on the Majority Text.
- Some NKJV give Majority Text readings in the margins.
- The title for Greek text edition from 1633 of the Greek text first
published in 1516 by Erasmus
- Erasmus originally intended to publish his annotations on the NT
with a text of the Latin Vulgate. His publisher pressured him to include
- Erasmus responded by using 7 Gr. mss available in his city to edit
a Gr. text in 7 months
- Erasmus called it “thrown together rather than edited.”
- Erasmus used two main msss and wrote his
corrections and changes on them.
- The printer used these mss to set the
- A comparison shows that the printer:
- Did not always follow Erasmus’ changes
- Made revisions not made by Erasmus.
- Erasmus had no Gr mss containing the last
six verses of Revelation, he translated these
verse from Latin back into Greek. These verses contain at least 20 errors.
- The copyist made several errors in copying the text of Revelation
which are still found in the TR today.
of Mistakes Found in GNT MSS
- Unintentional Errors
- Scribe mistook one word for another.
- Scribe confused similar sounds (affect and
- Unskilled scribes improperly divided words from
the uncial mss
- Errors of omission/addition (skipping a word,
skipping a line or writing the same word or line twice. Ex: Skipping down
4 lines because both lines ended with the same word.)
a-d are easy to identify when comparing manuscripts.
- More difficult: Explanatory notes where written
in the margin. When the mss was copied the scribe copied the notes into
the Gr. text. This is rare in NT and can be identified in comparison.
- Intentional Errors
- They were not made by corrupt scribes trying to
tamper with the text. Most often the scribe feels he has come across an
error and wants to “correct” the text.
- Example: Matthew 11:19 compared with Luke 7:35
“Wisdom is proved right by
her actions.” Mt. 11:19
“Wisdom is proved right by
her children.” Lk. 7:35
a scribe apparently tried to change them to agree as they do in the KJ. (Both
say “children” in the KJ.) But, earlier mss show that before the mss used for
KJ it used to say “works” in Matthew and “children” in Luke. Some scribe tried
to make Matthew and Luke agree on this quote.
Basic Rules of Textual Criticism
- The more difficult reading is preferred.
- Scribes would tend to “smooth” out the passages
they felt were in error or were hard to understand.
- The quality of the textual witness is more important than the
quantity of textual support.
- Textual authorities must be weighted and
- Example: The American Standard Version places a
footnote on Mt.11:19
“Many ancient authorities
read ‘children’ as in Luke 7:35.”
But, this footnote does not
say which ancient authorities read ‘children’ instead of ‘actions’. To find
this information to weigh the value of these ancient authorities you need to go
directly to a GNT text and refer to the footnotes there. The footnotes at the
bottom of a GNT text page are called an “apparatus.”
In support of “children”
support of “works”
Rescriptus Ephraem MS
Codex Vaticanus MS (300)
Codex Sinaiticus (350)
Almost all later MS
- In parallel texts (Mt. Mk. Lk. Jn.) minute different readings are preferred rather
than one that had been harmonized to match over the years.
It might be said that there are 200,000 errors in the
What this means is there are 200,000 scribal errors
in all the manuscripts, but this is misleading.
This number is arrived at by counting all the
variations in the 5,000+ Gr. mss
- If one word (the same word) is misspelled in 4,000 MSS that is
counted as 4,000 errors. What happened is one scribe misspelled one word
and it was copied at least 4,000 times.
- We have 5,000 Gr. mss. If we had only 10 Gr. MSS there would not be
- There would be errors but we would not be able
to identify them nor judge them
- The more mss you have the more:
Means of checking
Types of Variations
Trivial Variations Substantial
Variations Substantial Variations w/
- These exist but have no consequence to the text.
- This is the majority of the textual variations
Example: In a copy of the printed Greek Text you
could turn to the page with Mt.11:19 on it. It might have 13 verses on that
page (Mt.11:10-23). The bottom of the page would show that there are 9
variations in those 13 verses.
- 1 variation is the question of “works” or
- 5 variations concern the omission/addition of
words like “for”, “and”, “the”
- 3 variations concern different forms of the
same Gr. word.
- Often variations are changes in Greek spelling over the years. The
same thing happens in English. This can be seen when a comparison of the
1611 KJ Bible is made with a modern copy of the same KJ Bible.
- Variations include grammar and occurred when grammar rules changed
- Some variations occurred when vocabulary and word meanings changed
- A change in word order, but saying the same thing occurs. (ex: “the Lord Jesus Christ” or “Christ Jesus the
In all these cases it is simple to identify when,
where and why the change in the text occurred.
The best Gr. text is then easy to develop in these
POINT: But, even if all these issues could not be
resolved the overall meaning of the scriptures would not be lost or changed.
Some variations include whole verses or several
- Codex Bezae of the 400’s reads at Luke
“On the same day,
seeing one working on the Sabbath day, he said to him, ‘Man, if you know what
you are doing, you are blessed but, if you do not know, you are accursed and a
transgressor of the law.’”
- This is found in no other MSS.
- Codex Bezae is the first ms to have the
story of the adulterous woman at
- No early ms except the Codex Bezae (which is known for peculiar readings) has the story .
- It is not found in mss again until the 700’s.
- Even some mss:
Have notes of doubt in the margin
Have put it at the end of the
Gospel of John
iii. Have put it in Luke after Luke 21:38
- This does not bring doubt on the text but it
does bring doubt on if this story was in the original.
- The story may be true, but it was not
originally in the scriptures
- American Standard Version brackets the story
- Revised Standard and NIV – separate it from the
- New English Bible (NEB) – puts it at the close of John
- Acts 8:37, “And Philip said, ‘If thou believest
with all thine heart, thou mayest.’
answered and said, ‘I
believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.’”
- No Gr. MSS earlier than 600AD has this quote.
- American Standard and Revised Standard Version
- 1 John 5:7
- The KJ reads, “For there are three that bear
record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these
three are one.”
- Erasmus made the first printed Gr. text in 1516
His 1st and 2nd
editions did not include 1 Jn.5:7 because there were no Gr. ms with this verse
A controversy arose because the
verse had been in the Latin translations up to this point in history.
iii. Erasmus insisted he was right according to the Gr.
MSS and promised he would add it into his text if one single Gr. ms could be
found to support it.
Gr. ms appeared with 1 Jn.5:7 and Erasmus kept his word and added it
into his 3rd edition.
made the first copy of the English NT and used Erasmus’ 3rd edition.
From Tyndale in 1525 to KJ in 1611 1 Jn.5:7 was in the English Bible.
- 1 John 5:7 has no evidence of originality. Only
three Gr. mss have it and these all show that
they were translated back into Gr. from Latin.
i. One ms from 1300’s, one ms from 1400’s, one ms from
These are all substantial variations but make no
bearing on the meaning of the text nor the
understanding of the divine revelation.
that have bearing on the text
These are textual issues we may want to ignore but
ignorance solves no problems and gives the critics the advantage.
Variations such as 1 Jn. 5:7
or Jn.7:53-8:11 are surrounded by consistent evidence that leads us to a clear
decision concerning originality
Mark 16:9-20 is more difficult and even indecisive
Evidence against Mark 16:9-20 is that it is missing
- Codex Vaticanus
- Codex Sinaticus
- Old Syriac translation mss
- Old Latin translation mss
In favor of its originality:
- Codex Alexandrian
- Ephraem Rescriptus
- Codex Bezae
- Early uncials
- All Latin uncials and cursives
- Old Latin
- Latin Vulgate
- One Old Syriac
- Irenaes (100’s AD) makes a statement concerning Mark 16:9-20. He also said
that Mark was the author of the book we call Mark.
- Codex Sinaiticus leaves room between Mark
and Luke for the verses but they were never added in .
POINT: If these verses were taken out the concepts are still solid from other
verses and Bible records.
Restoring the Greek Text
5. Select one of the Gr. mss and translate it and ignore
all the others
a. Problem: No one mss is free from obvious scribal
6. Consult a number of Gr. mss and by comparison
is believed to be the
a. This is what translators
have done since the beginning of
translating the Gr. mss
Three sources to build Gr. Text from:
- Manuscripts – all of which can be traced back t6o the text they
- Alexandrian Text Copies – come from Alexandria
- Syrian (Byzantine) Text copies – come from Antioch, Syria
- Western Text copies – come from Western Europe
- Early Christian writers and their NT quotes
The Textus Receptus
One of the first most popular Gr
text was reconstructed by a Roman Catholic scholar in
Desiderius Erasmus used five GNT mss
- ms of Gospels, Acts and Epistles from 1000’s AD
- ms of Gospels from 400’s
- ms of Acts and Epistles from 1100-1300
- ms of Acts and Epistles from 1400’s
- ms of Revelation from 1100’s
- ms of Latin copies to fill in missing or questionable parts
1516 Textus Receptus becomes the accepted text
1519 Second Edition of T.R. has the Greek Text
revised in places.
Example: John 1:1 goes from “speech” from the Latin translation (“sermo”) to
“word” from the Latin “verbum”
1522 Third Edition of T.R. produced
1 John 5:7 was not in the first two editions because it was not in any Greek ms
People wanted 1 Jn. 5:7 added back into the GNT text
because it had been in the Latin.
Erasmus said he had never seen it in any Gr. mss but promised if he ever saw it
in the Gr MSS he would put it in his text.
Finally, a Gr ms with 1
Jn.5:7 was discovered and Erasmus put it in the3rd Ed. of T.R.
A 100 other changes made.
1522 Martin Luther makes a German translation from
the 1516 T.R. (Edition #1)
1525 William Tyndale makes
first English translation of NT from 1516 T.R. Germany smuggles
15,000 copies into England but England’s government and churches
burn them as fast as
1527 Fourth edition of the Textus
Receptus is published with 90 places in Revelation
on the Complutensian Polyglot.)
1535 Fifth editioni of T.R.
1546 Stephanus (or, Ropbert Estienne, 1503-1559)
revises the T.R.
1549 Stephanus’ second
Edition or T.R. with 60 changes
1550 Stephanus third
Edition of T.R.
He uses 12 different MSS and the Complutensian
He includes variant readings in the margins
1551 Stephanus fourth
First time the text is divided into numbered verses.
1564-1604 Beza (a friend of
John Calvin)makes 11 editions
At times Beza
edits based on his own conjecture as in Rev. 16:5 “which art and who was, O,
Holy One.” He changed it to “which art and wast and shalt be” which is not found in any Gr. mss.
1611 King James is published using texts of the Textus Receptus by Erasmus, Stephanus and
Beza, but Beza’s 1598 edition
was main source.
1633 Elziver Brother’s (Bonauenture and Abraham)second Edition
and is first referred to
as Textus Receptus
1650 Elziver’s third
edition differs from his second edition in 287 places.
All together there have been 25 editions and
countless changes in the Textus Receptus.
Chech out these for pro KJ information:
1881 B.B. Westcott and F. J. A. Hort
scholars) published a completely
revised edition of the GNT
They spent 30 years on the project.
It was a revolutionary achievement in scholarship
(not because it was new) but because of the:
- Deliberate thoroughness of their work
- The unquestionable soundness of the principles and methods
- No piece of evidence was passed over
- Every authority was considered and placed in perspective
Westcott-Hort text rejected
mass authority and built on the:
Codex Sinaticus and Codex Vaticanus.
Also, in 1881 a revision committee which included
Westcott and Hort published the English
Revised Version of the NT
The new translation (English Revised Version) and the
new text (Westcott-Hort) put the Textus
Receptus in the history books accept for tradition.
1892 – discovery of the Sinaitic Syriac ms
by two twin sisters who where looking for MSS at
on Mt. Sinai (same place as Tischendorf
discovered Codex Sinaticus) This
find was a palimpsest copied over a ms of the gospels
from 300-400 AD. It did not
have Mark 16:9-20.
1906 – Washington MSS. Charles L Freer
purchased a collection that included the Gospels
from 300-400 AD. Mark 16:9-20 is there plus an
additional verse after Mark 16:14.
1931 – Chester
Beatty Papyri. Sir Frederic Kenyon, Director of the British Museum
group of papyri from jars taken out of an Egyptian grave
yard. Included are:
P45 (papyri #45) – 30 leaves
of Gospels and Acts from 200 AD
P46 – 86 leaves of Paul’s
epistles in this order: Rm, Hb,
1+ 2 Cor.,Eph,, Gal,
Col, 1+ 2 Thes. From 200 AD. Comparable to Vatican and Sinaitic
P47 – 10 leaves from middle of Revelation from 200 AD
1920 – John Ryland’s
Fragment (P52) is a 3 1/2” x 2 1/2” fragment only but it is the oldest
known ms. It is John 18:31-33,37,38 from 110-130 AD. It is
precisely like our text
1956 – Bodmer Papyrus (P66)
of John from 200 AD and contains 1:1-14:26 with two missing
leaves that showed up in 1958. Details of this
discovery are still unknown.
1961 – Bodmer Papyrus (P75)
from 175-225 AD. Contains Luke and some of John. This
oldest copy of Luke. This P75 and P66 are very much like
Codex Sinaticus and Codex
Vaticanus. No peculiar readings
like Codex Bezae.
These finding give more weight to Westcott-Hort.
These do not have John 7:53-8:11 nor do they have
The Textus Receptus and the Westcott-Hort
text are basically completely compatible.