These gifts will overlap but the progression is simple. These four/five gifts will:
kai autoV edwken touV men apostolouV touV de profhtaV touiV de
And he gave some ( “the one”) APOSTLES some (“the other”) PROPHETS some
euaggelistaV touV de poimenaV kai didaskalouV proV ton katartismon twn
EVANGELIST some SHEPHERDS and TEACHERS for the PERFECTING of the
agiwn eiV ergon diakoniaV eiV oikodomhn tou swmatoV tou cristou
SAINTS to WORK of MINISTRY to BUILDING of the body of Christ
“Pastor” shares the article (definite article) with “teacher” which makes this a list of only 4 gifts not 5, the last one being the gift of “pastor/teacher”. The wording in the Greek requires a strong overlapping of the Pastor and the Teacher. Most ancient lists like this included overlap in the positions identified.
All four/five gifts are gifts of proclaiming
All of these gifts have authority based on:
None of the gifts have authority from: 1) Man, 2) Jewish Law, 3) An Ordaining Institution (seminary),
The Apostles and the Prophets are foundational gifts as is seen in Ephesians 2:20 and 3:5. They are mentioned first in 1 Cor. 12:28
“APOSTLES” (“apostolos”)– from the verb “apostello” meaning “to send”. Refers to commissioned messengers backed by their senders authority.
· Apostle is used in three ways in the NT: 1) A messenger sent from someone – Philippians 2:15; 2) The Twelve Apostles appointed by Jesus – 1 Cor. 15:5; Revelation21:14; 3) Others in the NT - James (Jesus’ brother) Gal. 1:19; 2:9; 1 Cor. 15:7; Barnabas, Acts 14:4, 14; Acts 9:27; Silas and Timothy 1 Thessalonians 2:6; Andronicus and Junias (or, female Junia) in Romans 16:7 (possibly).
· Heb. 3:1 Jesus is an apostle.
· Acts 1:21 - Historical witnesses of Christ so they could testify to the events and interpret the historical events.
o Paul argues for his apostleship in 1 Cor. 9:1-3 saying “Have I not seen the Lord.” 1 Cor. 15:6-8 Jesus appeared to 500 plus others
o Sent out by Jesus
o Accompanied by signs and wonders and mighty works 2 Cor. 12:12 but also, fruit of the ministry as in converts 1 Cor. 9:2
· Apostles were to: 1) proclaim the revelation, 2) teach (Acts 2:42, “devoted themselves to the apostles’ teaching”); 3) heal (Acts 5:12); 4) limited administrative responsibilities which were to quickly be handed off (Acts 6:1; See Paul’s ministry), 5) Discipline (Acts 5:1; 1 Cor. 5:1); 6) Oversight of the churches (Acts 15:36; 1 Cor. 4:15); 7) Major doctrinal decisions (Acts 15:6)
· Now we turn to the apostles writings, the N.T. for doctrine, example and church government.
“PROPHET” (“prophetas”)- spoke for God and may have been a carry over from the Old Testament until God had finished speaking the new revelation. Prophets were the mouth piece of God. “Prophet” occurs 149 times in the NT. “To prophecy” occurs 28 times in the NT.
I would say the ministry of the Apostle and the Prophet has ceased, just like it did in the OT after Malachi.
But, even before the coming of John the Baptist there was the ministry of Simeon and Anna in Luke 2:25
The cessation of the Apostle and the Prophet (and the signs and revelation that accompanied them) does not require the cessation of the presence and manifestation of the Holy Spirit (gifts and utterance) in the church. Read 1 Corinthians 13:8-13). 1 Corinthians 14 gives instructions to the church for the use of tongues and prophecy.
“EVANGELIST” (“euangelistas”)–one who proclaims the good news. The evangelist proclaimed the gospel which he had received from the apostles. A missionary who brought the gospel into new regions. Heralds or messengers. Only mentioned again in Paul’s writings in 2 Timothy 4:5 which appears to include planting churches and establishing of congregations (Romans 1:11-15).
“SHEPHERDS” (“poimenas”)- one who leads sheep to food and protection of sheep put in his charge.which is Bible teaching. OT-Jeremiah 23:2-4, In Jer. 23:18-22 they were to declare God’s message accurately.. The word “poimen” is only used here. May refer to the “overseer” position in local congregations elsewhere in the NT Philippians 1:1 along with elders. Acts 20:17, 28; 1 Peter 5:1-2; John 21:16 - “Shepherd” is used in these verses. They manage the church in 1 Thes. 5:12 and Romans 12:8.
“TEACHER” (“didaskalos”)- a teacher. They were to explain Scripture, the gospels (Jesus) and the new revelation. Jewish synagogues had “teachers” who provided biblical instruction and also trained others to do the same. The “teacher” in the church was probably fulfilling the role of the Jewish teacher. The Teacher is linked with the Pastor by a single definite article in the Greek which indicates a close association between the two men or with in one man in the local congregation. The teacher is seen in Acts 15:35; 18:11, 25; Rom. 2:20, 21; Col. 3:16; Heb. 4:12. When applied to teaching apostolic doctrine see: 1 Cor. 4:17; Rom. 16:17; 2 Thes. 2;15; 2 Tim. 2:2; 3:10. Specially chosen men in 2 Tim. 1:13-14; 2:1-2; 1 Tim. 3:2; 5:17; Titus 1:9. Teachers also urged people to live what they heard Ephesians 4:20-21
“PERFECTING”, “EQUIPPING”, “QUALIFICATION” (“katartismos”)-The word was a technical medical term for setting of a bone. It describes the act by which people or things are properly conditioned and made ready for service, work, function. This word was also used to describe the work of Greek philosophers or teachers.
“BUILDING” (“oikodoman”)- building, building up, edification. The word is an expression of development.