726 Iconoclastic Controversy
in the East
have always viewed with different opinions by Christians
- Only “Christian” art
- No art at all
- Avoid visual representations
-1-To capture the idea of flesh being given God’s splendor
Mary (flesh) was crowned in Gold (promised redemption) sitting under gilded
arches being approached by a shining winged creature.
-2- To show the unfavorable way this portion of
Christianity occurred in history one would paint Mary as ordinary in ordinary
- 680 A new controversy broke out: The use of icons or images.
was a debate over what was sacred or holy and deserved worship.
clergy were set apart and so holy.
Also, church buildings, martyrs and heros of faith such as hermits
and monks were set apart.
were set apart and so holy or “saints.”
holiness of a saint was evaluated on the miracles that took place at their
tomb, relics, or icon (image)
- 700’s By the 700’s every city had at least one
famous saint that was worshipped and became the protector of that city.
government and church encouraged this.
began to multiply
then limited their devotion to one location such as:
St. Demetrius of Thessalonica
The miraculous Christ-icon of Edessa,
* Miracle working icon of Mary in Constantinople
Christians placed faith in the icon and made no spiritual connection, thus
image began to replace the image of the emperor on coins (685-711)
Leo III (717-741) attacked the use of icons
Eastern Asia Minor bishops preached
- Leo held off the Muslim attack on Constantinople
and then declared his oppositioin to icons
- A mob
murdered the messenger sent to replace the icon of Christ at the imperial
sections of the empire rebelled againsts Leo
– Leo issued an edict to destroy public icons
Bishop of Rome condemned those who destroyed the images. The destroyers were called iconoclast.
Roman Bishop got military support from the Franks
wanted the cross, the book, and the elements of Lord’s supper to be holy
along with clergy and dedicated buildings.
son argued the only true icon’s were the bread and wine because they were
the same substance as Christ.
754 Iconoclastic Synod of Constantinople
During this council a three fold anathema was
pronounced on the advocates of
The clergy submitted, but the monks who
manufactured the pictures denounced the emperor and were subjected to
imprisonment, flagellation, mutilation and death.
SEE INSERT: Picture’s of
787 Nicean Council II
eighth church council
the IV kept the laws against icon worship but his beautiful wife from Athens, Irene
tolerated and then favored icon worship.
raised the persecuted monks to the highest dignities removed the
iconoclastic imperial guard with one agreeing to her views.
convened the eighth church council.
It consisted of eight sessions from September 24-October 23 in 787.
Nicene Council nullified the decrees of the iconoclastic Synod of
Constantinople in 754 (which later was rejected as a true church council)
images were: the cross, pictures of Christ, pictures of the Virgin Mary,
pictures of angels, pictures of saints, the gospel books, relics of
could be drawn in color or composed of Mosaic materials.
could be in churches, houses in streets, on walls, tables vessels and
may be paid to them by kissing, bowing burning incense, saying prayers,
honor paid to the image was a representation of the honor paid to the true
reality in heaven.
scriptures used for defense were Ex.25:17-22; Ezek. 41:1,15,19; Hebrews
alleged testimonies of now dead church fathers, mostly falsified and
alleged miracles performed by images was used to defend the practice.
numbers of former iconoclast repented and prayed together, “We all have
sinned, we all have erred, we all beg forgiveness.” And they worshipped the images.
this council an image was brought in and kissed by all the delegates. At the conclusion of the council the
delegates said together:
“Thus we believe.
This is the doctrine of the apostles. Anathema upon all who do not
adhere to it, who do not salute the images, who call them idols, and who charge
Christianity with idolatry.”
Second Council of Nicea is far below the first both morally and
determined the character of worship in the Eastern church for all time and
so is still significant.
decision is binding on the Roman church which had sent two papal delegates
and is defended in its writings.
protestants disregard this council because:
violates the second commandment
violates the practice of apostolic Christianity
superstitions that accompanies it.
miracle-workings done by the Madonnas in the 19th and 20th
affects of this council is that it has saved Christian art. If the iconoclast would have been successful
in their extreme methods there would be no Christian painting, sculpture,
ect. It would have affected music and
other expressions of the Christian faith.
To prevent her son from being capable of reigning and to
maintain her power in the East Irene had her son’s plucked out one night as he
slept. She ruled for five more years and
then was overthrown and exiled. She
spent the rest of her life working for a living.
800 Charlemagne Crowned Emperor
divided kingdom consisted of an Emperor in the East and a ruling pope in
Popes claimed power in 590 and continually increased their claim.
Christians called Lombards attacked Rome
several times. The pope needed
military support and called on the Franks to be his ally. This union would shape Christianity in
the Middle ages.
Franks had invaded Gaul from their homeland along the Rhine River. The Gaul’s
had adopted Roman culture after Julius Caesar’s invasion. This Roman culture now went to the
Franks upon their invasion of Gaul.
- Clovis (466-510) united the territory from the
Rhine down into France. This helped bring stability to the area.
- Clovis accepted
Christianity (496) due to:
* His wife *
Supernatural aid in battle
- Clovis’ sons were
weak and just partied in the palace when they came to power so the kingdom
was run by the mayor’s of the palace.
was the first mayor (687-714)
was handed to an illegitimate son of his called Charles Martel
Martel as the warrior saved the West for Christianity and the pope knew
had taken Spain and
were threatening Europe but were defeated at the battle of Tours in 732.
SEE INSERT: Map – “Muslim Expansion, 622-900
supported Boniface’s work in evangelizing the tribes beyond the Rhine
two sons reigned after him. One
joined a monastery leaving Pepin the Great to rule as king.
Zacharias needed help against the Arian Lombards in 754 and 756.
donated land in central Italy
to the pope. This was known as the
Donation of Pepin. It remained the
pope’s until 1870.
this time a book appeared called the “Donation of Constantine.” Which tells the story of Constantine’s conversion and how the grateful Constantine made a
huge land grant and special rights to the Bishop of Rome.
was a forgery but it was not proven until several centuries later. The popes did and still use it to defend
their claim on land, power and position.
the book Constantine
was healed of leprosy and baptized by the bishop Sylvester. In return Rome was to have
precedence over all the other churches and this bishop was to be the
supreme bishop. Constantine left the imperial palace,
imperial clothing, and imperial rank to the pope. Constantine
then moved East so as not to interfere with the Pope and his gift.
SEE INSERT: Picture of Constantine
next ruler was Pepin the Great’s son Charlemagne (742-814).
began to reign in his father’s place in 768.
was crowned Emperor of the Roman’s by the Pope in 800.
would influence everything in Western Europe.
was 7 feet tall. He had a large
strong body, a bright face and long white hair.
SEE INSERT: “Church and State, 754-1309”
SEE INSERT: Map – “Empire of Charlemagne”
- The Ninth Church Concil
brought about the final schism between the East and West
800 – 1054 the Western church experienced an inner renewal that gave it
strength to deal with its existence in the shadow of the Holy
Eastern church became conscious of this and other differences between the
East and West.
renewal of the Western church was not always spiritual, but often
Donation of Constantine – a
forgery credited to Constantine tells the story
being healed of leprosy and baptized by the Bishop of Rome. In return Constantine
gave the Bishop central Italy,
the palace, clothing and the imperial symbol.
then moved East.
A collection of false decrees by earlier roman bishops. These asserted the roan Bishop (Papa) was
supreme over all bishops. Also, it
claimed that the church was free from secular control.
Doctrine of Mass. A
controversy reguarding the nature of Christ’s presence in communion upset the
Western church. Any claim that the
Lord’s super was a sacrifice by the priest was additional power to the pope,
the priesthood and their hierarchy. They
alone had power to perform this miracle.
(In 1215 at the Council of Trent the church officially accepts this
view.) In 831 Paschasius Radbertus began
to teach that by a miracle the substance of the bread and wine were changed
into the body and blood of Christ. The
book: “Of the Body and Blood of the Lord.”
D. Monastic Reform carried
out by the Cluniac monasteries.
909 Abbey of Cluny Founded
reforms by the founders of the abbey of Cluny called Cluniac Reforms.
monasteries contributed to the supremacy of the papacy.
the 900 the monasteries had become wealthy and corrupt.
earlier ideas of service had been replaced with:
ideal of individual salvation
an easy life of wealth in the monastery
Eastern France at Cluny
in 909 a monastery was founded that was free from secular or episcopal
control. It was self-governed and
under the pope’s protection.
leaders (Abbots) did their work so well in this monastery that many others
reorganized along the same line.
The leaders were: 1) Berno (910-926) 2) Odo (927-944)
Abbots would appoint the leaders in new monasteries and oversee them.
organized all the monasteries under the Abbot of Cluny who worked with the
Cluniac leaders called for reform:
The condemned simony (buying and selling of church offices for money)
They condemned nepotism (the practice of showing favoritism to relatives
in appointments to church positions.)
Celibacy – the clergy could no longer keep concubines nor could they
attention was not to be to family but to the church.
Ascetic life was restored.
Good schools were formed. These
schools made Latin the common language of
the middle ages.
Cluniac monasteries resulted in:
Missionary Efforts b) Crusades against Muslims in the Holy Land
order of monasteries came to an end in 1790.
800’s Vikings Invade Europe
splendid Frankish Empire of Charlemagne began to dissolve quick at his
death because the empire was dependent on his personal genius and energy.
of Holy Roman Empire
A) Teutonic Principle – Emperors land
divided between sons. Charlemagne’s son
began this and had to divide the empire into three sections. They warred until it was divided into Germany and France with a 100 mile section
between them in 843.
B) Feudalism – Decline of city life and
trade forced people back to the farm.
Public power went into private hands of land owners. There were three groups:
Protectors, the land owners known as knights.
Producers, the economic foundation known as serfs.
Prayers, the priestly class
was a system of political organization based on land possession and served as a
system of justice and order during the period of the decline of central
large amount of land in Western Europe was
held by the church. Pious or repentant
men seeking to atone for a life of sin lift lands to the church.
church (abbots and bishops) would give land to knights in exchange for
church became secular and concerned about land.
people faced a choice:
1 - Be loyal to the temporal lord
on who’s land he lived and worked
2 – Be loyal to the
spiritual lord, the pope.
became a breeding ground for bad doctrine.
C) Vikings from Sweeden,
Denmark, and Norway invaded
any town or monastery along the coast or on the shores of rivers. This led to the rapid decline of the fallen Holy Roman Empire.
Vikings settled in England
and eventually merged with Anglo-Saxons.
The Christina culture of England
was set back.
936 Otto the Great
idea of the Holy Roman Empire survived
even though it fell.
- In Germany
division was great due to the interest and topography
* In the north the rivers flowed
north and the land was a plain.
* In the south the rivers flowed
south and the land was mountainous
divisions and feudalism led to decentralized authority
need for unity came with northern invaders and the tribal dukes unified.
- 919 –
Henry the Fowler, duke of Saxony, was
made ruler. He drove back the
- 936 –
Henry’s Son, Otto, became king.
Otto made the dukes his vassals
Otto took over the church and
began appointing the bishops and abbots.
over extended his interest by becoming involved in affairs over the Alps
in the church in Rome.
went to Italy to aid
the pope in battle and was crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 962
which united all of central Europe until
Napoleon in 1806.
the next 200 years the Roman church had weak leaders and the German
emperors crossed the Alps to help bring
order out of the Chaos.
– Otto III put down a faction of Roman nobles and forced the election of
his cousin Bruno as Pope Gregory V.
Innocent III will humiliate the German emperor.
SEE INSERT: Map –
“Empire of Otto the Great”
SEE INSERT: Map – “The Schism of 1054”
330 Constantine moved the Roman Empire
capital to Constantinople.
395 Theodosius place East and West administration under different heads.
490 the Roman Empire falls in the West
fall of the West left the Emperors in the Est with no Emperor in the
West. The pope (bishop of Rome) alone was left
in the West and was too far away to be controlled by the East.
In the East . . .the emperor was almost a pope
In the West. . .the pope was almost an emperor
differences between the West and East:
Intellectual outlooks were different:
Latin West spent time considering practical matters of polity. They had little trouble formulating orthodox
Greek mind in the East was more interested in solving theological
problems along philosophical lines.
Between 325-451 most theological problems arose in the East. The same issues were not problems in the
2) Cultural differences:
a) Celibacy differed – Eastern clergy married
b) Beards –clergy in East had to wear a beard.
c) Language – East was Greek, West was
Latin. This led to misunderstandings.
3) Theological differences:
867 – Photius, patriarch in Egypt,
charged Nicholas I and church in West with heresy because
the West had the “filoque” clause
in its Nicene Creed.
589 at the Council of Toledo III the words “and the Son” or “filoque” were added to the Nicene
Creed after “Holy
Spirit that proceeded from the father and the Son.” The
Western church since had insisted on the deity of the Holy
4) History of conflict:
* Easter Conflict, 150 AD
* Iconoclastic Controversy, 700 AD
* East destroyed or limited the power of monks
* Pope Nicholas tried to interfere with a
church appointment in the East around 850
SEE INSERT: “The
Primary Causes of the East-West Schism of 1054”
1054 Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople condemned the West
for using unleaven bread in the Eucharist.
Pope Leo IX sent Cardinal Humbert to end the dispute. During discussion the differences
widened between the church in Rome and the
Church in Constantinople. On July 16, 1054, Cardinal Humbert
excommunicated the East. Not to be
outdone the patriarch anathematized the pope of Rome and his followers. For the first time universal unity was
Dec. 7, 1965 the mutual excommunication was removed by Pope Paul VI and
1066 William the Conqueror King of England
Vikings conquered England
under the leadership of William the conqueror.
1000 Seljuk Turks occupy the Holy Land
1073 Pope Gregory VII (Hildebrand)
had great temporal power between 1054-1305 that included: Hildebrand Innocent
III Crusades Universities Scholasticism Obedient
is going to be nationalism in France
spent 20 years (five popes in 1053-1073) as a humble servant of the pope
trying to obtain powers for the pope.
will then spent the next 12 years (1073-1085) reigning as the pope with
the 300’s certain churches had been designated as exclusive baptism
sites. The pastors became known as Cardinal
Priest at these locations.
the 200’s Rome
had been divided into districts to do charity work. These pastors became known as Cardinal
were called Cardinal Bishops.
three groups became the Pope’s College of Cardinals.
IX – Hildebrand was placed in charge of the Roman Finances, and thus over
II - Hildebrand helped have the
ecclesiastical legislation taken from the population of Rome.
The Cardinal Bishops would choose a candidate (while consulting the
Cardinal priests and deacons) for pope.
Then the people could vote.
This prevented corruption from the German emperors, etc.
– Hildebrand was unanimously elected as Pope Gregory VII as a result of
the people shouting “Let Hildebrand be bishop.”
(Gregory VII) goal: The pope as absolute theocracy in spiritual and
(Gregory VII) wanted no civil power to dominate the church.
Hildebrand (Gregory VII) wanted the church to control civil power.
stopped these practices: 1)
Lay investiture – where church leaders where appointed by their feudal lords. 2)
Simony (buying and selling church offices) 3) Failure to enforce celibacy, to help men
focus on and reform the church
Hildebrand’s (Gregory VII) death they found his writing “Dictatus Papae”
which was a document with his letters that develops papal supremacy over
temporal rulers and over the Roman Church.
“Dictatus Papae” said:
Roman church founded by God alone
Pontiff alone to be called “universal”
Pope had full power over all bishops
d) Only the popes feet should be
kissed by “all princes”
e) Pope could “depose emperors”
f) Pope could release all subjects
of evil rulers
until the time of the pope’s absolute power education took place in
monasteries. The pope supported the
founding of universities.
these universities debates were carried on which reawakened intellectual
life in Europe and helped expand the vocabulary
and depth of Christian thought.
example: Discussion revolved around
the meaning of Jesus words “This is my body, this is my blood.” A student named Berengar said that a
real and true change takes place in these elements but the change is spiritual. Lanfranc and other theologians debated
him saying it was an actual change although the “accidents” (touch, taste,
sight and smell) of the bread and wine remain the same.
Lafranc won the debate and the term
“transubstantiation” took on Lanfranc’s definition. Berengar was condemned and forced to disown
was an age when the church controlled all education and they carried on their thinking
against the background of what had gone before (classical philosophy of
the Bible and the teaching of the earliy Christian writers.)
great schoolmen (Anselm Peter Abelard, Hugh of St Victor, Peter Lombard Albert the Great Thomas Aquinas Duns
movement put logic into faith. They
organized the faith into a system.
men of scholasticism did not necessarily believe the same thing but
instead thought and reasoned the same way.
theology that interested these men was basically philosophical.
was considered in his own day a dangerous innovator b) his work is
said to be a lake with many streams flowing into and from but that
his work by itself is no water source. c) He was original in the way he pulled
together all the previous teaching and the rigorous
way in which he explored question after question. d) Aquinas
would quote everyone who had gone before, pool together all their ideas
and then and only then would he produce his view.
men were no fools. They were
rigorous, complex, and had great thinking capacity. They belong to the intellectual giants
Problems: a) They were often attempting the
impossible. b) Much of their work was devoted to
reconciling what can not be reconciled. c) They recognized the church fathers’
writings as infallible d) They force Greek philosophy to fit
scriptural study. Often one or the other must
change to fit. In this case you no
longer have philosophy
nor scripture. e) They were operating with out-dated
concepts. Many of the questions that they
wrestled with have turned out to be pseudo-questions in the light of our scientific view of the world. The questions they asked had
theological bearing but their preoccupation with them hindered
the hearing of the scriptural message.
boy could begin his university education at the age of 12. They only need to know Latin.
privilege of lecturing in theology was not granted until a man was 35.
had 3,000-4,000 students.
men desired to confirm all that they had been taught. They made no original contribution to
exegesis and biblical theology.
wanted to organize the doctrines in
an orderly system called “summa theologiae”
went to the extreme of introducing into their discussions every imaginable
question. These questions, if
answered, would do no good except to satisfy a prurient curiosity.
gives the best example of treatises on distinct subjects such as the
existence of God, the necessity of the Incarnation, and the fall of the
the Lombard produced the most clear
Aquinas the most complete and finished systematic bodies of divinity.
began with the principle that faith precedes knowledge. As Anselm said, “I believe that I may understand;
I do not understand that I may believe.” And quoted Isaiah 7:9, “If you
will not believe, you surely shall not be established.”
SEE INSERT: “Schools of Scholasticism”
SEE INSERT: “The Theology of Scholasticism”
SEE INSERT:“Arguments for the Existence of God- the Five Ways of Thomas
1096 First Crusade
SEE INSERT: “The Crusades”
SEE INSERT: Picture of Crusades
1100 Bernard of Clairvaux
known as Rome Council I
- It is
the 10th Church council
that bishops are appointed by Popes
1139 Second Lateran Council
known as Rome Council II
was an effort to heal the East and West Schism
1100 University of Oxford Founded
1100 Notre Dame
de Paris is built
1176 Peter Waldo
founds the Waldensians
Wealthy merchant who read translations of the Gospel and experienced a
spiritual conversion in 1176
St. Alexis Waldo left his family, gave his goods to the poor and took a
vow of poverty.
followed his example in Lyons.
became an itinerant preacher and vigorously campaigned against the
worldliness of the Church.
organized his followers into two classes: the Perfect and the Friends (or,
translated the Latin Bible into the languages of people.
Alexander III approved his lifestyle at the Third Lateran Council in 1179,
but forbid him to preach without local approval.
were known as the “Poor Men of Lyons” and lived poor to condemn the
ignored Alexander III and continued to preach and was condemned as a
group has survived into modern times in Europe, North and South America.
Waldensian church as a modern membership of about 35,000.