Church History 1179-1517 www.generationword.com
1179 Third Lateran
12th Church Council
To enforce Ecclesiastical discipline
Declared all usury (regardless of interest rate)
forbidden. (Thus the Christian was not
required to repay debts to the Jews.
2 Waldenses appeared to seek approval. They gave the pope a translation of their
Bible for approval. The council mocked
them and called them simple. When asked
if they believed in the persons of the Trinity the Waldenses said “Yes.” When asked if they believed “in the Mother of
Christ.” They also said “Yes.” The whole committee burst out laughing at the
ignorance because it was not proper to believe “in” Mary but to believe “on”
her. The Waldenses were excommunicated.
1189 Third Crusade
Frederick accidently drowned on the way to Palestine
Augustus went home after a quarrel with Richard of England.
continued to fight but was unsuccessful in recaptureing Jerusalem
but did get pilgrims access to Jerusalem.
1212 The Children’s
from France and Germany
led by two boys not yet in their teens named Stephen and Nicholas
marched across southern Europe to Italy
logic was the purity of their lives would bring more success than their
parents had due to the sinful condition of the adults.
perished and the rest were sold as slaves into Egypt
1215 Fourth Crusade
attempt to capture Egypt
as a base to attack Jerusalem.
Pope unanimously elected while still a deacon
Strengthened his political power with every
Defeated King John of England who refused to accpt
Innocent’s nomination of a church man.
He imposed an interdict (“to exclude from
certain church offices, sacraments and privileges”) on England and
threatened a crusade.
In 1213 England agreed to become the
possession of the pope and pay an annual tribute.
The pope then ruled England for many years
1215 Fourth Lateran
13th Church Council
The bidding of Innocent III. He dominated the council
Established the Inquisition
Formulated the doctrine of transubstantiation
The crusade of 1217 was scheduled
the papal sanction in 1216
began with approval from scholars, princes and popes
they became idle, insolent and
were the salvation of Western Christianity in an era that had been overrun
with Crusades and awful heresies.
suppoied the universities and scholastic theology with some of the
founder, Dominic, was has been called a bright light and an ecclesiastical
statesman. He was cold, systematic
and a master disciplinarian.
Dominic’s life’s work was to strengthen the church.
Franciscan Order was founded in 1223 and was identical to the Dominicans
in purpose and historical development.
Their founder was Francis.
Francis was described as unpretentious, gentle with a great
personality. His life work was to
move among the people saving the souls of men. Contrary to Dominic who wanted to
strengthen the church, Francis sought to carry the ministries of the
Gospel to the masses.
to practical activities in society
brotherhoods which were men who continued their lives but were bound by oath to practice the
virtues of the Gospel.
teachers in the universities
first monastic bodies to vow allegiance directly to the pope. No bishop, abbot intervened between
them. They became the pope’s
bodyguard and organized support.
They made it their job to preach the supremacy of the pope.
1245 Lyons Council I
quarrel with the pope and the emperor
prosecuted and deposed emperor Frederick II.
1274 Lyons Council II
to unite East and West. The East
was represented by an imposing delegation.
by 500 bishops and 1,000 other ecclesiastical leaders.
that the Spirit procedes from the Son.
the prohibition of the institution of new monastic orders
1311 Vienne Council
Templars were the Knights of the Temple
in 1119 to protect pilgrims and to defend the Holy
Land from Muslims
Templars had outlived their purpose
around 1307 the King and the Pope began to have these knights arrested
including their grand master
Inquisition was set into motion in 1308.
They were charged with false charges such as heresy, spitting upon
the cross, worshipping an idol of Mohammed, along with sodomy, kissing
the posterior parts and navel of fellow knights. Also of meeting with the devil and
female demons. There were 127
the strain of prolonged torture many of the knights assent to these
charges and admitted dening Christ.
king, the pope, the Dominican order, the University of Paris,
and the French episcopacy was against them.
- Many renounced their confessions as they
- In Paris 36 died under
torture, 54 died in one burning, 100’s died in prison. This spread throughout Europe where the
pope order trials in Germany,
Italy, Spain, Cyprus,
and England. Papal inquisitors went into all these
the council of Vienne the majority were
in favor of a new, fair trial but the king insisted that the order of the
knights be abolished.
order of knights was abolished on March 22, 1312.
is described as “the perception of God through experience.”
advocates say such an experience is reached by humility and penance more
than through the path of speculation.
- It is
the contemplative life followed with action.
contemplation is the knowledge of John 17:3, “This is life eternal, to
know Thee and Jesus Christ whom Thou hast sent.”
of the early mystics, John Gerson, helped balance out experience with
truth and feelings with reality:
As coins are tested for hardness, weight, color, shape and stamping, so
visions are to be tested by the humility and honesty of those who profess to
have them and their readiness to teach and be taught.
He agreed with the monk’s teaching when asked to look at an image of
Christ, “I do not want to see Christ on the earth. I am contented to wait till I see him in
According to Job 33:14, “For God speaketh once, yea twice, yet man
perceiveth it not,” he developed the
principle that if visions reveal what is already in the Scriptures, then they
are false, for God does not repeat himself.
People have itching ears for revelations because they do not study the
Warned against the revelations of women, as women are more open to
deception than men.
He taught that the scriptures are the Church’s rule and guide to the end
of the world.
was the age of the decline of scholastic method, the scandals of Avignon court and
the papal schism when mysticism began to develop.
began in Germany
and was widespread among the Dominicans.
people North of the Alps began to draw
attention to the value of the inner religious life and God’s immediate
communications to the soul
were called the fFriends of God, the Brothers of the Common Life.
little books called the “German Theology” and “Imitation of Christ” were
the finest of their works.
leading names were:
Meister Eckart, d. 1327 John Tauler, d. 1361 Henry Suso, d. 1366 John
Ruysbroeck, d. 1381 Gerrit Groote, d. 1384 Thomas
a Kemis, d. 1471
formed groups, but had no formal organization
did no have universal expression but agreed on the pure heart and union
was a life of devotion, not outward, formal practice of religious rules.
was an experience more than assent to intellectual tenets of faith.
element of intuition has a large place
had risen earlier in the middle ages and would appear again in the 1600’s
as French quietism (Madame Guyon, Fenelon).
example, Echart sought the loss of our being in the ocean of the Godhead.
sought the impact t of the divine nature upon our nature at its innermost
point, kindling with divine love as fire kindles.
described it as the undisturbed peace of the soul.
expressed it as passionate and rapturous love for Jesus, but in the end he
felt it was not possible to reach it in this world.
was the antithesis of the theology
of the Schoolman. Where
Scholasticism had beaten a dusty highway for years, the mystics moved in
the private, moist, shady pathways.
German mysticism emphasized above all dogmas the necessity of the new
church councils have not quoted from them the fruit of the German mystics
was Luther, Melanchthon and the reformation
In seeking to hear the voice of God in their hearts ran the huge risk of
considering the conscious, cultural standards and imagination for revelation
It magnified individualism and their own emotions and desires without
considering that everyone feels the same way
Morning Star of the Reformatioin
was of Saxon blood and studied at Oxford.
several appointments including one from the king
1366 he was one of the king’s chaplains
1374 Wyclif went for the king to negotiate peace with France and to meet with the pope’s agents
on filling of ecclesiastical appointments in England.
his return to England
he began to speak of religious reform.
preached in Oxford and London against the pope’s secular
one of his tracts he calle dthe bishop of Rome
“the anti-Christ, the proud, worldly priest of Rome, and the most cursed of clipers and
said that the pope “has no more power in binding and loosing than any priest.”
1378 he was tried for heresy
then began to write in English the Scriptures
organized traveling preachers to take his message
rejected transubstantiation, priestly absolution in the confessional and
followers were called ‘Lollards’ and were arrested
suffered a stroke in 1382 that left him partially paralyzed
saying mass in his church hes was struck again with paralysis and died two
days later on Dec. 29, 1384.
was said to have lit a fire that would never go out.
increase in the number of sects, nationalism, and the wider spread of
money began the decline of the papacy
- England and France were at odds with the
pope. The clash centered not on
lands as in the past but on the accumulation of money.
church had to resort to demanding tithes from the churches or risk
- In France
King Philip the Fair levied taxes on the French clergy of one-half their
- In 1296 Pope Boniface threatened
then forbid the exportation of gold to Rome
Boniface countered by stating the most far-reaching claims ever made by
medieval papacy. He said that
Christ, being both a king and a priest, had committed to Peter not one key
but two, and not one sword but two – the temporal as well as the
spiritual. Peter had renounced for
himself the actual use of the temporal sword, but had delegated it to
kings to be employed under papal direction.
some of Philip’s men captured the pope in his summer residence near Rome and tortured
him until he died.
papacy was then transferred from Rome to Avignon a little town in Southern
France. This city as
to be the papal residence from 1305 until 1378.
was known as the Babylonian captivity
1378 Great Schism of
countries were rejecting the papacy as a French institution.
Gregory XI went back to Rome but his
cardinals refused to go with him and elected another pope in Avignon, Clement VII
XI was succeeded by Urban VI in Rome
who then created a new college of cardinals.
were now two popes and two sets of cardinals.
conflict continued until both sets of cardinals were so disgusted that
they met together with out either pope in 1409, calling their two popes
“Benefictus” and ”Errorius” and deposed them both.
elected a new pope
English Translation of the NT
1415 John Hus Burnt
began preaching to the people of Bohemia
in their own language
criticized Catholicism at first on a moral basis.
upbraided the luxury and license of the bishops and pope and drew a
graphic picture of Christ riding on a donkey and the pope on a stallion
being kissed on his feet.
movement restored the cup to the laity and not just to the priest
at the University
of Prague burned the
papal bull of indulgence and were executed. Huss protested and was sent into
retirement and wrote “On the Church”
the Council of Constance the council proposed to examine Hus.
welcomed the suggestion and was guaranteed a safe journey there and back.
arrival Hus was shocked by the blatant immorality of the priests.
was accused of teaching the doctrines that he did not teach.
was burned by the council and said while burning, “O Christ, thou son of
the living God, have mercy upon me.
O thou, who wast born of the virgin Mary. . .”
the dirt around the stake was dug up and removed so there would be no
1431-1449 Basel Council
14 Turks Capture
1456 Johan Gutenberg
- In an
attempt to rid the country of Spain of all heresy against
the Catholic church.
sacrificed Jews, Moors, and protestants.
church organization has ever been more unrestricted than the Spanish
was in agreement with the papal Inquisition established by Innocent III in
its aim to eradicate heresy. But it
was under the direction of a tribunal appointed by the Spainish king and
answerable to him. They were
completely independent of the bishops.
first sitting of the tribunal in 1481 result in six men and woman being
began with the Edict of Grace which gave heretics a period of 30-40 days
to turn themselves in.
priest were then placed under a vow to reveal these names.
750 of them in 1486 were to march through the streets with candles to the
church where they were told 1/5 of their property would be taken and they
could never hold public office.
1491, 298 people had been burned and 79 condemned to perpetual
75 were burnt alive and 26 dead were exhumed and cast into the flames.
1500 the entire population of a city was banished by inquisitor-general
crimes of unorthodox faith could be refusal to eat pork on a single
occasion, visiting a house where Moorish notions were taught, saying that
the Virgin herself and not her image effected cures
were tortured into confession and to get a conviction of someone else.
water-cure: the victim was tightly bound and stretched upon a rack with
the body on an incline and the head tilted back. The jaws were opened and a linen cloth
stuck down the victim’s throat.
Water from a quart jar trickle through it into his body until they
held 7-8 jars. Weights were
attached to the feet and the body would be raised and lowered to increase
1488 5,000 were in perpetual imprisonment.
last case of an execution by the Spanish Inquisition was a schoolteacher
on July 26, 1826. He was accused of
being a deist and substituting the words “Praise be to God. For “Ave Maria
purissima.” He died on the gibbet
(gallows or forked stick) repeating
the words, “I die reconciled to God and to man.”
1512 Fifth Lateran
- Rome Council V
1517 Martin Luther
and 95 Theses
15 John Calvin
1525 Anabaptists in Europe
15 King Henry
of church of England
English New Testament
1545 Council of Trent
15 Foxes Book of